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1930s-90s, Marriage and Family Changes of the Rural North China

Author: WangYueSheng
Tutor: TianXueYuan
School: Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Course: Demographic
Keywords: 1930s - 1990s Rural North China Marriage and Family Social change
CLC: C913.1
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2002
Downloads: 1282
Quote: 4
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Abstract


This article is for 1930-1990 made by the North China rural changes in marriage and family studies, focused on marriage and family behavior and characteristics of southern Hebei farmers in the context of social change. Based on the Cixian two townships, six villages by the sample survey of marriage and family in the fall of 1999 and fall of 2000 in Cixian archives collected plains, hills and mountains the geographical characteristics of the five villages population archives. On this basis, a detailed investigation of the situation of different ownership changes in marriage and family, to seek social change and changes in marriage and family relations. This paper focuses on marriage and family on the macro-political and economic changes in the response of the past 60 years. In the discussion, the authors of this historical process is divided into four stages. Entirely under private ownership of marriage and family, mainly referring to the 20th century, thirty or forty years (before the land reform). Second, from land reform to the senior community during the transition period before the establishment of marriage and family. Third, under the collective ownership of Marriage and Family. Senior agency from 1956 up to 1980, and 1981 on the implementation of the contract responsibility system. Fourth, the contract responsibility system during the marriage and family. Since 1981, land ownership remain with the collective land use rights or the right to operate the original production team organization delegated to the farmers, each family has become relatively independent production units. Although the four periods of change in the next 50 years China's social system, but only two fundamental change, the progressive introduction of collective economy of the private economy and after the liberation war of liberation. In this social transformation and extensive and in-depth historical period, marriage and family showing those changes? Marriage change. Before the land reform traditional society, parents are given as children rights Zhuhun. In addition to the non-binding provisions on the age of marriage, the official is not directly involved in the marriage of the people to the conclusion of the process. First marriage behavior for women generally early marriage, of male early and late marriage behavior coexist. Good match in the property based on the concept of marriage is fully reflected. As the purpose of marriage is to knot the good of the two surnames, in order to avoid the relations within the family has been weakened, the South Area outside the village marriage become a common practice. 2. Land reform, parents Zhuhun rights are abolished through the establishment of the marriage registration system, the government is directly involved in the process of marriage concluded. The extreme early marriage and deformities marriage be removed. Since the government can make use of the collective economic organizations, the implementation of comprehensive management of the population, and thus the age at first marriage requirements (including policies of late marriage age) showed strong binding. Property on the basis of class marriage replaced component of the class identified within marriage, family men with marital difficulties born rich contour component. The disintegration of the traditional family organization, the the clan concept of the tribe constraints weakened the autonomy of the men and women marriage enhancement. North China's rural collective economic times, the parents of the children of the marriage is still considerable discretion. Of course, this arranged marriage in the traditional sense has been different. The marriage of the village in the era of collective economic development opportunities. 3. Contract responsibility system, the legal age of marriage has become the only criterion for marriage, government guidance, and with certain mandatory late marriage shall be canceled. Early marriages are below the legal age of marriage has increased. In order to develop relations in the village, the village marriage has become an important way, it also caters to the aspirations of the age of marriage for men and women, marriage the circle therefore was shrinking trend. Second, changes in family behavior. Separation behavior. In rural North China, whether private economic times, or collective economic stage, the separation is inevitable. Traditional private ownership era, the separation of children by the father committed a certain degree of inhibition, but this inhibition is mainly manifested in the property have a certain number, a relatively wealthy family. Below average family is difficult to maintain a big family situation for a long time tend to have higher separation frequency. The extended family - if a father dies, the separation will be inevitable. Collective economic times, the separation of becoming universal. Its manifestations are the children of married parents living together shortening, gradually evolved for the separation of married folk. 2. Changes in family structure. Rural South from 1930-1990, there are two changes in family structure and characteristics of the composite family before the land reform a certain proportion to the land reform gradually reduced. After the mid-1960s, the composite family coming to an end. Another feature is the steady growth in the proportion of nuclear families. Before the land reform, the nuclear family in the survey villages are the largest proportion of the type, but it is just a simple majority. And a considerable portion of the nuclear family due to family separation of parents bound to reduce or disappear. Land reform, nuclear families becoming the pursuit of the majority of the children of married families. Multi-child families not only married son hope to the separation of single parents, and parents to reduce the burden would also like to married son, cook another catering. Composite family, even after the disintegration of the immediate family into the nuclear family. Post-nuclear families of collective economic situation gradually formed. Previous researchers exaggerated as a symbol of the traditional extended family compound family's level of presence. This article studies have shown that, on the whole, traditional times, large families, although it accounted for a certain proportion, but not the dominant family form. See from southern Hebei, the composite family accounts for about 15%, and are mainly concentrated in the middle peasant households. 3. Changes in family size. Before the land reform Rural South family size is basically maintained at the level of 5. Family size and the amount of land per family a great relationship. The middle peasants more family size of the population of more than average, significantly lower than the average size of the population of poor peasant families. After the land reform, especially after the senior community, the land and the level of household wealth out of the relationship, and thus no longer have an impact on family size. Family size depends on the the family fertility level, but also closely related to the separation of frequency. Overall, 46 of the proportion of middle-class families increased more than seven family reduce. In Chinese history, the largest average household size remained around 5 records, the investigation of various cases results also show that the characteristics of family size. According to this study, occupies a relatively large proportion of 4-6 family of traditional society, formed the basis of the presence of the five-scale family. More importantly, below the mouth of the single-family and 7 above the mouth of the large occupy a certain proportion of their average substantially in the port or approaching the 5 port on a scale so that the mouth of the family size has a certain universality . Land reform, the large scaling above the mouth, below the mouth of the proportion of single-family is also reduced. Decline in the size of the average population size of the two types of family, and then with

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CLC: > Social Sciences > Sociology > Social life and social issues > Love, family, marriage
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