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Heoretical and Empirical Studies of Self-Worth System of Middle School Students

Author: DiQun
Tutor: HuangXiTing
School: Southwest China Normal
Course: Basic Psychology
Keywords: Macao Xi’an middle school students self-worth multi-level and multi-dimensional model explicit self-worth implicit self-worth cross-cultural study
CLC: B844.2
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2005
Downloads: 1491
Quote: 19
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Abstract


Since 1980s, the study of Self-Worth (SW) or Self-Esteem (SE) has been paid great attention by many psychologists from all over the world, and more and more people have been conceived of its importance to the development of hiunan and society. This paper aimed to fully evaluate mental structure, age characteristic of self-worth of middle school students and the effects of circumstances like society, school, family, on the development and maturity of self-worth in the perspective of cross-culture, by means of Implicit Associative Test (IAT) and Questionnaire study. Statistical techniques like analysis of correlation, MANOVA, regression analysis and analysis of covariance were synthetically employed. This paper consisted of review and empirical studies.Section One ReviewFirst, on the combination of the origin and developmental tendency of study issue, the definition of self-worth, the relative theories and criticism, the influential studies and the tendency have been systematically summarized and analyzed. Then, the operational definition of self-worth was presented on the basis of the combination of many perspectives. Finally, the progress course, actuality and trend of self-worth were discussed.Section Two Empirical StudiesWith the conclusion of the existing problems of self-worth study, the general idea, the thought and the study method at hand of this study were then presented. The academic value and practical meaning were also discussed at last. The empirical studies of this study consisted of five studies as follows:Study one The Characteristic of Explicit Self-Worth of Middle School Students and Its Influencing FactorsThis study was to evaluate the SW and its influencing factors of 2300 middle school students aged from 12 to 18 with the "Adolescent Self-Worth Questionnaire" designed by Prof. Huang Xiting and its relative study questionnaires. The results showed that global self-worth and general self-worth waved obviously at the age of 12 to 14, implying that there was significant correlation between the physiological and psychological development of junior middle school students. The stability of self-worth at the stage of senior middle school meant that their global self-worth had been almost stable. The variance of gender difference of middle school students on global self-worth was not significant. The developmental feature of inner structure levels of self-worth was represented by its trend of dissociation of inconsistent level and differentiation of conflicting orientation. Goal of life, family relationship, study performance and participation in sports and physical activities were found to be the key factors which greatly influenced the level of self-worth, while the factors of family economic condition, artistic activities, the educational level of father and the job of mother were somewhere influential.Study Two Cross-cultural Study of Explicit Self-Worth of Middle School Students in Macao and Xf anThis study was to conducted to investigate the cross-cultural differences of self-worth and its relative factors of 2300 middle school students aged from 12 to 18 from Macao and Xi’an with the Self-Worth Scale and its influential factors studyquestionnaires. The results of this study demonstrated that the level of explicit self-worth of middle school students in Macao was much lower than those in Xfan, meanwhile, the level of explicit self-worth of senior middle school students in Xi’an was waved, while it was relatively stable of Macao’s. The differences of social culture perspective and education perspective should be the external bases, which affected this kind of inconsistence. Simultaneously, family relationship, study achievement, goal of life, participation in sports and artistic activities and family economic condition were the primary factors which influenced the different level of self-worth between Macao and Xi’an. Meanwhile, it confirmed that the groundwork of modern civilization and cultural education of both in Macao and Xi’an was Chinese traditional culture, and the future of subculture of China in Macao could also be reflected here.Study Three Implicit Self-Worth of Middle School Students and Its Developmental FeatureThe technique of Chinanized and revised Implicit Associative Test (IAT) was used to investigate the explicit self-worth of 350 middle school students aged from 12 to 18 in this experiment study. The results showed that middle school students’ tendency of combining self-words with positive attributive words indicated the significant effect of the implicit self-worth, which demonstrated that the self-worth had been formed at the stage of middle school. The better differential validity of revised IAT showed that the revision of attributive words could better eliminate the effect of cultural variance on experiment results. The implicit self-worth, which was independent of external circumstance factors like gender, age, family background and study achievement showed its stability and consistency.Study Four Cross-cultural Study of Implicit Self-Worth of Middle School Students in Macao and XfanThe technique of Chinanized and revised Implicit Associative Test (IAT) was used to investigate the implicit self-worth of 340 middle school students from Macaoand Xi’an aged from 12 to 18 in this experiment study. The results of this study demonstrated that the level of implicit self-worth of middle school students in Xi’an in different ages was waved, while it was relatively stable of Macao’s. The difference of social culture perspective should be the key factors, which affected this kind of inconsistence. The significant difference of subjects group 13-14 in Xi’an between implicit and explicit self-worth partly demonstrated the feature of mental conflicts of adolescent at the age. The implicit self-worth of the subjects in Macao was higher than those in Xi’an, which could be inferred that the growth up circumstance filled with superiority complex exerted a subtle influence on implicit self-worth.Study Five Empirical Study on the Correlation of Explicit and Implicit Self-WorthThe aim of this study was to have the correlation tested and the framework model empirically analyzed with the Chinanized and revised Implicit Associative Test (IAT) and Self-Worth Questionnaire, which meant to investigate the correlation of explicit and implicit self-worth of 350 middle school students aged from 12 to 18. The results showed that the correlation coefficient between most of the dimensions in explicit and implicit self-worth was almost zero, except that GS and SS2 had significant negative correlation, which approved the relatively independent framework of explicit self-worth and implicit self-worth. Amos4.01 was used to testify the proposed model of self-worth with 6 constructs. Every synthetic index in all models showed that the Dual Constructs Model, which made of 8 dimensions was the most suitable one to construct explicit and implicit self-worth, in which implicit self-worth was a stable and single dimensional construction, while explicit self-worth was a multi-level and multi-dimensional one.In the general conclusion and discussion, many issues such as the validity of techniques in the experiments and measurements which were adopted, the age development of explicit and implicit self-worth, the influencing effects of socialcultural and educational orientation, goal of life, family relationship, study achievement, participation in artistic and sports activities, the correlation and constructions of explicit and implicit self-worth were further testified and the trend of further study was also discussed.In the present studies, the results showed:1. The explicit self-worth of junior middle school students, especially those in XT an presented as "V" wave and undulation, otherwise as relatively smooth of senior middle school students, which showed the trend of separation and division of middle school students’ inner structural dimensions. The most possible causes of the unstability of junior middle school students were their conflicts of body-mind development and of self-identify.2. The explicit self-worth level of middle school students in Macao was much lower than it in Xi’an, while the implicit self-worth level was much higher. Both explicit and implicit self-worth trend of middle school students in Macao were more stable than in Xi’an. The differences of social cultural and educational orientation should be the external bases which could affect the self-worth in Macao and XT an greatly.3. Although these factors like family relationship, study achievement, goal of life, participation artistic and sports activities, and family economic condition were the key influencing factors of explicit self-worth, they had no effects on implicit self-worth.4. Those like explicit and implicit self-worth were two separated structure, in which implicit self-worth was single dimensional and stable, but explicit self-worth is a multi-level and multi-dimensional one.In the present studies, the creativities showed:1. In study technique perspective, experiment (IAT) and questionnaire (SW Questionnaire) were used simultaneously to investigate the self-worth of middle school students synthetically and completely at different cultural level for the first time. IAT was revised with the consideration of cultural backgrounds of subjects

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CLC: > Philosophy, religion > Psychology > Developmental psychology ( human psychology ) > Adolescent psychology
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