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Korea toward the boudoir Poetry in research

Author: LiXueHua
Tutor: CaiMeiHua
School: Yanbian University
Course: Asian - African Language and Literature
Keywords: Korean Dynasty Women poets confined in boudoir Chinese poems Sexual Poetics
CLC:
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2007
Downloads: 226
Quote: 2
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Abstract


After the classification and generalization of the research achievement that has been gained in the field of women poetry, this paper studies the women culture and women cultural psychology of Korean Dynasty, analyzes the aesthetic pursuit of Korean women poets confined in boudoir, and evaluates the importance of women poets of Korean Dynasty and the literary importance of their poets with the theories of cultural hermeneutics, sexual poetics, aesthetics and comparative studies.During the time of the middle 17th century, the Confucianism and the family culture were closely combined to develop the patriarchal family culture, which was characterized by its"rule of rights". Confucian principles like"the seven valid causes for divorce"and"three cardinal guides for women"were applied to enslave women to men, which meant the absolute sexual discrimination. These changes destined the total difference between female education and male education, and women of the intellectual families being strictly confined to their boudoirs. Moreover, after marriage, woman’s status was deteriorated by pressure, bearing, concubine, and prohibition of remarriage. Although educations were provided to the women intellectuals of Korean Dynasty, those were only family-oriented, which were all about women etiquette and stitchery, etc. In spite of these difficulties and obstacles, there were still many outstanding women poets. Some of the enlightened men had not only encouraged women’s literary creation, but helped the publications as well. These intellectual women, becoming the wives of other intellectual family after marriage, were actually the most miserable victims of the Confucianism. As hostesses of families, successors of family culture, and legitimate mothers, these women had to sustain their dignities of hostesses and mothers, which had affected their creation of Chinese poems to great extent.Confucian culture attaches much importance to the moral virtue, which has exerted great influence on the women’s aesthetic pursuit and the actualization of the ideal personalities. However, there are some differences among these intellectual women according to their social status. On one hand, the upper-class intellectual women with high-level education, who enjoy affluent life, not only preach in their verses about moral virtues, but are in pursuit of the sublimation of their spiritual lives. On the other hand, the lower-class intellectual women express their forced consciousness, and advocate poems to teach lessons out of their utilitarian considerations. To some extent, women acknowledge that the world is created, governed, and controlled only by men. However, women never give up their pursuit for something valuable. That is to say, they are eager for many things, such as the higher social status, the self-actualization, freedom of thinking and literary achievement, etc. However, these desires of the intellectual women in Korean Dynasty are far from realization. Being always restricted to their boudoirs, these women have to garner satisfaction either from the success of their husbands and sons, or from the affirmation from men. However, the injustice and discrimination in the daily life make these sensitive intellectual women feel depressed and disappointed. The imagination about freedom in nature and the recollection about the old days can set them free from afflictions temporarily. Therefore, nature becomes one of the favorite subjects of the intellectual women. Being similar to the men’s tendency to seclusion, women can also feel relived in their poems about nature. In this sense, in nature, woman can not only have the feeling of relief, but also share the same status of aesthetic subjects with men. Accordingly, tranquility in mind, which is gained in nature, can change their points of view about the whole world.The aesthetic features of Chinese poems written by the intellectual women of Korean dynasty are analyzed from three aspects: the images of aesthetic conception, the expressions of aesthetic experience, and the aesthetic styles. Women images in literary works are the expressions of views about female. Usually, man would like to create the images of beautiful women or virtuous women through the description of women body or women virtues, which embodies men’s view of women and their aesthetic requirement about women. Besides, man’s poems in tone of woman are the expression of his ideas, not the real expression of women. Although there are characters of virtuous women in both works of men and women, there exists sharp disparity between these images. These poems written by women not only diffuse the woman virtue, but unveil the agony and contradiction under the cover of the woman virtue as well. The images in the intellectual women’s works expose their feeling of restrictions and seclusions. Therefore, they prefer to express themselves through the images of birds in their poems. The images of phoenix and crane are the most representative ones. Moreover, the women images of the relaxed or fairies in women’s works are different from men. Whereas, considering the expressions of aesthetic experience, Chinese poems written by Korean women are contradictory, which should be regarded as the contradiction between the emotions and reasons. Living in a society where the moral restrictions are very severe, intellectual women poets of Korean Dynasty must express their feelings in poems through some other tactics, among which writing poems in disguise of men is the most common one. Generally, Chinese poems written by women are usually characterized by their gentleness and elegance, quiescence and unselfishness, freshness and delicacy, etc.Because of their controlled and restricted life, the expressions of women poets have the tendency of looking inside, becoming the literature of introspection. Furthermore, being almost free from utilitarian tendency, Chinese poems by Korean women are more pure. Besides, these poems provide not only the precious experience peculiar to women, but also the women perspectives and women awareness, which could not be found in poems written by men. Overall, to study the entire women literature, including the poems written by Korean women, the prejudice and misunderstanding on women works should be eliminated which will revive the women literature and provide a valuable chance to reconstruct the whole system of literature and the literary criticism.

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