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Another Marx: One Humanism Annotation

Author: ChaiZuoZuo
Tutor: LiuFuSen
School: Jilin University
Course: The philosophy of Marxism
Keywords: Marxism Human nature Disassimilation Humanitarianism
CLC: B08
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 917
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Abstract


Erich Fromm(1900-1980) is a humanitarianism philosopher, he and Frankfurt’s clssmate advocated that through eliminates the disassimilation, the regression human nature path to realize person’s liberation. Fromm’s humanism theory intently reflection in his book " Max’s Concept of Man", And he appeared by explains the genuine Marxism. Therefore, our research mainly bases on Fromm’s this book. Fromm stood on "Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844", carried on humanism explanation to the Marxist philosophy, thought that Marxist philosophy is take“the humanitarianism and the disassimilation”as the foundation person study.To Marxism’s understanding is the Fromm’s humanism theory premise. Firstly, he has criticized that kind and twists the Marxist philosophy misregistration to only pay great attention person’s material want, to neglect person’s spiritual needs and the spiritual development vulgar materialism explanation at that time. In his opinion, Marxist philosophy is one kind about person’s philosophy.“Marx’s philosophy also represents one kind of protest, protested that person’s disassimilation, protested the human loses his oneself, protested that the human changes into the thing.”It is the result that Marx inherits the West humanitarianism philosophy tradition, this philosophy tradition’s essence is causes to person’s concern, the human latent to be able to realizes. Obviously, Fromm has made the understanding which make the Marxist philosophy humanism, and pointed out that opposes the Marx youthful days and the grown-up time’s thought and separates the Marx thought unified to make the law is to the Marx theory and Marx misinterpreting. In his eye, Marxist philosophy is a human study. From this indication, Fromm carries on the explanation to the Marx philosophy from person’s natural disposition, the disassimilation, humanitarianism.About person’s natural, Fromm believed that Floyd uses“the biology”the method belongs to person’s natural disposition biological, Marx emphasizes person’s sociality useing one kind“the sociology”the method, this both respectively have the limitation, only synthesizes two person of theories in the glory truth thought, then possibly forms one perfect theory of human nature. Therefore, he studies the human nature question the method to surmounts two person“the sociobiology”, makes one kind of dynamic explanation from inside and outside factor interaction’s angle to the human nature, he believed that the human nature is the potential, Human, then develops this kind of potential which does in the historic course, and defers to the human nature possible development direction to transform this kind of potential.Fromm stressed that human’s natural takes root in the human survival condition one kind of contradiction. When the human was unable to overcame the existence two things to have all sorts of spiritual needs, these spiritual needs are precisely“humanity’s unique driving influence Archimedes spot”, which also the human becomes person’s only factor.Thus it can be seen,Fromm was still replying that“the human is anything”this question, but“anything is anything”the inquiry is actually the modern metaphysics thinking mode, makes every effort to obtain one to eternally unchanging, the idealistic ultimate existence, then definitely say, Fromm obtains finally“the abstract person”, this“the reality person”is very different from Marx.Embarks from the modern metaphysics’s thinking mode, presses“the human is anything”, take this kind of hypothesis’s invariable abstract essence as a premise, take that this kind of idealistic person as the genuine person, but under system of private Capitalist property condition, when the reality person’s work causes itself and person’s that ideal essence departs from and opposes, Fromm’s disassimilation theory as scheduled. He regards the disassimilation as individual one kind of subjective feeling, namely“the human takes the main body which and the object separates, to accept passively experiences the world and his oneself”, And develops the work disassimilation in "Draft manuscript" into the universal disassimilation, Thus pointed out that“the disassimilation”for the Marx philosophy’s core,but this kind of understanding has violated Marx’s original intention. We acknowledged that the disassimilation in "Draft manuscript" is a central concept, the disassimilation is the deviation to person’s kind of essence,.In the final analysis, "Draft manuscript" did not have to get rid of the old philosophy abstract humanism completely the fetter. But after 1845, the situation had the obvious change, about the disassimilation, Marx only has also used“, if also used this philosophy terminology temporarily”,“was easy to understand with the philosopher”like this described, The disassimilation no longer discussed as the theory, but takes one kind of phenomenon to describe. This is a scotoma in Fromm’s thought platform, therefore, we must understand the relations between Marx earlier period and the later period work, Marx establishes historical materialism which provided the survival thought logic, To understand human, no longer presses“person’s essence is anything”, but“person’s reality survival condition is what kind of”, as realized from the abstract person to the reality person’s transformation.Fromm ignores totally the Marx later period’s thought change, take vulgar materialism’s question, the human nature reconstruction, the disassimilation analysis as one kind of humanitarianism concern finally. He thought that the Marxism essence is humanitarianism, the goal is the humanitarianism socialism, his socialism is that the human liberates from the disassimilation, through restores all people the disassimilation and the free activity to cause oneself to be liberated, and in this society, the pursue goal is a human, not the product, the human no longer is abnormal, it turned the full development person, thus realizes the unifies between the human and the ideal natural. Embarks from such thought logic,take the Marxism understanding as traditional humanitarianism inevitably. This kind of humanitarianism is a humanism itself, But Marx still care about the human, he similarly take the human as core. From this significance, we are called the Marxism“new”humanitarianism for the time being, in fact ,this is an appraisal and the standard criterion question. What so-called“the humanity”is the human“road of the survival”, but under the different historic condition, have the different survival need, namely“the humanity criterion is the history”, similarly, under any historic condition, exists conforms with the human survival the need, namely“humanity value”.Therefore, cannot embark from ideal, the general human nature, but appraises the reality the rationality from under the reality historic condition person.Thus, when tradition humanitarianism bases on the abstract human nature or person’s essence establishes ethics principle, formed abstract ethics principle which has surmounted so-called which all historic condition, abstract eternally unchanginged“justly”,“fair”,“friendly”and so on, but when Marx the philosophy has realized the transformation from the abstract person after the reality person, and caused the philosophical basis of the ethics to have the target transformation. The ethics principles are also put person’s reality survival requirement foundation to understanding, namely ,“friendly”,“just”,“fair”. These ethics principle is also understood for the reality, the history, but non-abstract, eternal. Thus, take the humanity’s survival value as the appraisal social system’s ultimate criterion,as surmounts all the evaluation criteria of the abstract humanitarianism, then this is run counter that Fromm pulls Marx back abstract humanitarianism.Generally speaking, this book’s basic concept is untenable, but it provides a new angle of view to understand many Marx’s thought, it is a big instructive to how to us to understand that person’s question. And it is a critique to the capitalism cause personality’s distortion, human nature loses, person’s perishing with the disassimilation, make us see capitalist society’s other aspect, deepen to the capitalism understanding, for us,it provides the theory weapon to understand and the analysis capitalist society comprehensively, objectively.

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