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Studies on the Relationship between Industrial Diversity and Productivity and the Robustness of Industrial System of China

Author: XuZuo
Tutor: ChangJie; GeZuo
School: Zhejiang University
Course: Ecology
Keywords: industrial system industrial structure diversity economic productivity nitrogen productivity network model robustness
CLC: X2
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 35
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Industry is one of the most important contributions to national economy. Three times of industrial revolution from the18th to20th century greatly improved industrial technology, industrialization and the following urbanization have changed the relationship between man and nature globally. Because the mechanism ofemissions and reuse of industrial waste, whichone of the main factors of environmental damage, isclosely related to the industrial structure, analyzing the industrial system from multiple perspectives becomes important and emergency. Ecological theories and method such as traditional biodiversity-ecosystem productivity relationship analysis and rising network-ecological structural analysis can be used to research industrial system, for it have similar structure, process and function with the natural ecosystem. The economic output and the pollution emissionof industry both have close relation with the industrial structure. Analyze industrial system with ecological concept, theory and method has important and practical significance, for which could help us understanding the impact of industrial structure on production capacity of industry, and the way adjusting current industrial structure for further development.This paper compares the indicators of industry with ecological concept, uses the ecological method which analyzes the biodiversity-ecosystem productivity relationship to study the relationship between industrial diversity and economic/nitrogen productivity of industrial system. It also classifies functional groups in industrial system on the basic of the trophic level functional groups in the natural ecosystem, studies the robustness and other characteristics of industrial system by building and analyzing a network model of the industrial structure. This paper studies the industrial system of China and its31provinces as cases, estimates the industrial structure, diversity, productivity of industrial system and the relationship among them. This paper adopts the2008annual economic data of industrial system of China, uses richness, evenness and difference as industrial diversity indicators, and economic/nitrogen output value as productivity indicators of industrial system.The main results are as follows: 1) Industrial richness is positively correlated to productivity, means the increase of richness would also raises the productivity of industrial system. Industrial evenness is negatively correlated to productivity, some industries with high unit-productivity which has greater number and scale in enterprises would raises the productivity while reduces the evenness of regional industrial system. Industrial difference has impacts on many aspects of industrial industries, such as industrial progress and unit-productivity. Simpson’s index is acomprehensive indicator of richness and evenness, the relationship between Simpson’s index and productivity is highly similar to such result of industrial evenness, which means evenness has a greater influence to productivity of industrial system of China than richness.2) The relationship between industrial diversity and economic productivity is more significant in the setof provinces which with higher economic, and in the set of industrial enterprise which with larger scale. The ordering and classifying analysis of industrial diversity and economic output value shows the possible way of developing regional industry:firstly raising industrial richness by improving the industrial types, to meet the demand of human for industrial products regionally; then reducing industrial evenness by selecting and intensively developing several industries as dominant industries, to improve the economic benefits of regional industrial system.3) The relationship between industrial diversity and nitrogen productivity is not significant. Chemical industry is strengthened in agriculture developed provinces for the demand of chemical fertilizers, and mining industryis strengthened inprovinces which rich inmineral resources. In such provinces, the level of industrial evenness is low because of the numerical advantage on industrial enterprises of one or several industries, and the level of nitrogen output value is high for the high total nitrogen content of industrial products of above industries.4) The trophic-level based productivity structure presents as an inverted pyramid, economic output value of the senior producers is significantly higher than the primary producers. Production and supply of water and energy industry and primary manufacturing industry occupy the most important position in industrial structure, for they play roles of connecting environment, primary producer and senior producer in the trophic-level based functional groups of industrial system. 5) The structural robustness of industrial system between in the higher case and lower case of the natural ecosystem, and has a further increasing potential asthe developing of industry. Human dominated optimization and management which follow the nature are the basic of strengthening the resistant stability of industrial system.6) Waste recycling industry directly determines whether the systematic circulation of the network model of industrial system is zero. It would raise the efficiency of resource recycling in industrial system, and reduce the emission of industrial waste and environmental pressure from industry, if the scale of Waste recycling industry is further improved. Industrial system maintains its self-stability by market regulation, of which the mechanism is similar to negative feedback effect in homeostasis of life system.7) Convergence which reflects in the industrial structure, industrial diversity and unit-productivity exists in the provincial industrial system of China. There are both positive and negative impacts of convergence. Positive impacts include it raises the robustness of national and provincial industrial system by adding redundant paths, reduces economic cost and energy consumption of industrial products transportation by shortening the path length, and shows directions of developing industry for backward provinces. Negative impacts include it limits regional functional differentiation, raises redundant of system and excess capacity, and reduces overall efficiency of industrial system.Industrial system has the characteristics of self-organization system. It has similarities in structure, process and function, and differences such as inverted pyramidal productivity structure, each trophic-level directly obtain material and energy from the environment with the natural ecosystem. In an evolutionary perspective, the development direction of human dominated system is gradually achieving unity with the natural ecosystem, and the reasonable evolutionary trend of industrial system is also constantly closing up to the natural ecosystem.

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