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Research on the development of ecological environment in Dianchi River Basin and Kunming city contemporary changes (1949-2009)

Author: BaiLongFei
Tutor: WuXiaoLiang
School: Yunnan University
Course: Specialized History
Keywords: Dianchi Lake basin Kunming city interactive supporting capacity
CLC: X524
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 581
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Abstract


The relation between the ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin and the city’s social development in the basin is the core of Kunming urban development. The relation came into being in the Warring States Period when cities appeared in the area around Dianchi Lake, and the core differed slightly in different periods. With the urban development in Dianchi Lake basin after the 1950’s, the population grew explosively, the industry developed fast, the city scope and the economical scale expanded in the basin, especially from 1990 to 2009, the conflict between the supporting capacity of the ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin and Kunming urban development became the important factor that restricted the sustainable development of Kunming urban region. The supporting capacity had already reached the limit in the 1990’s, many ecology targets lost self-repair function, and the ecosystem entered the worsened period. It is necessary to carry on a historical investigation on the ecological environment vicissitude and urban development in Dianchi Lake basin from the 1950’s until now, for the investigation can reveal the cause, the content of the performance, and the characteristics of the conformation of the vicissitude of the relation in the rapid development of the society and economy at the present time. Therefore, to clarify these relations is prerequisite to locate the urban development in the basin and is essential to realize the coordinated development of the ecological environment and urban areas. This dissertation takes 1949 to 2009 as the time section to carry on the analysis.The dissertation consists of introduction, main body and conclusion. The introduction provides the dissertation with the basic knowledge that explains the reason and significance of the topic selection, the current situation and the existent insufficiency of this topic and that tells the basic research thought and methodology of this dissertation as well as the key words.The main body is divided into 6 chapters, which can be grouped into 2 major parts in the light of the content structure, i.e. the simple background research on characteristics of the ecological environment in the basin and the historical development of the urban area as well as the historical research on the relation between the ecological environment in the basin and the urban development in 60 years since 1949. The first chapter provides a kind of background knowledge for the subsequent research which simply carries on the investigation on the characteristics of the ecological environment and the vicissitude history of Dianchi Lake basin as well as the history of urban development. The second chapter researches the relation between Kunming urban development and Dianchi Lake basin ecology in the 1950’s. During this period, the fine ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin provided good support, especially the needed important material resources for the urban development at that time. While at the same time, people randomly cut down forest and blindly reclaimed land in the basin resulted from blindly exploiting in order to gain maximum material interest from Dianchi Lake basin ecosystem. The third chapter analyzes the period since the 1960’s to 1970’s, during which, lots of heavy industries were constructed, plenty of land was reclaimed from Dianchi Lake as a result of political movements’leading the socio-economic development choices plus special strategic consideration at that time. While developing economy, these activities exerted a destructive influence on the ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin. The industrial pollution had already had serious negative consequence in the basin in the 1960’s and 1970’s, destroying self-purification ability of the internal ecology in the basin, and leading to the artificial treatment of Dianchi Lake pollution started from 1970. The fourth chapter investigates the period of the 1980’s, which witnessed the considerable development of the economic construction in the basin as a result of the reform and opening-up policy. Cities in the basin especially the main urban area of Kunming played a key role in the economic development; besides, the urban scale expanded fast, thus the ecology worsening of Dianchi Lake basin was aggravated. The policy-makers started to note that in the urban development, the basin ecology restrict the sustainable socio-economic development in the entire basin region, hence they took substantive actions to fight against pollution. However, the treatment of Dianchi Lake was no more than a political manifesto-like statement in consideration of "taking economic development as the central task", which lacks the executive determination, so the effect was very bad, and the deterioration tendency of the ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin was not prevented at all. The fifth chapter discusses the period of the 1990’s. Since the ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin started to become the factor that hindered the urban development, it is crucial for the urban development in the basin that the ecosystem of the entire basin operates normally. The enlarged treatment dynamism manifested in two programs’coming into being and the investment of treatment increased. However, in order to pursue the economic development quantity, the treatment can not curb the speed of ecological pollution as a result of urban expansion, the growth of population and the development of economy. The speed of appearance of pollution in the whole basin and that of treatment advanced together, and the speed of pollution overtook that of the treatment. The ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin could not support the urban development in the basin in the 1990’s. The sixth chapter summarizes the first 10 years in the 21st century, during which the urban development in Dianchi Lake basin exploded the infinite strength under the urbanization throughout the country, and after the policy-makers reoriented for the basin city--Kunming municipality’s nature, what was the current situation of the relation between ecological environment of Dianchi Lake basin and the urban development? Policy-makers wanted to find the balance between the restoration of the basin ecology and the blueprint of the urbanization in the urban development. So the treatment of ecological environment was advanced powerfully, the number of pollutant fell compared with the corresponding period in previous years. Nevertheless, the whole eco-environment cannot realize the successful restoration because of the rapid urban expansion.The conclusion believes that the relation between the current urban development in Dianchi Lake basin and the ecology of Dianchi Lake underwent a complex process from artificial destruction and disordered plundering type development to artificial restoration and coordinating relation between ecology and urban development. This period can be divided into the previous 30 years (from 1949 to 1979) and the latter 30 years (from 1980 to 2009). In the previous 30 years, the eco-environment of Dianchi Lake basin could basically self-purify, and provide socio-economic development in the basin with fine natural resources. Of course, the disordered development during the previous 30 years laid down the foreshadowing of the eco-environment worsening in the latter 30 years. The treatment of Dianchi Lake ecosystem during the latter 30 years did not bring ideal effect although the investment was not a few.5 characteristics of the relation between urban development in present Dianchi Lake basin and ecology can be discovered by analyzing:repeatedly changeable location of urban function; serious conflict between the plundering type development and the fragile ecological system; urban development consumed natural resources without limits in Dianchi Lake basin; the ideal plan and the urban realistic development do not step well together; the ecology ideal and the urban realistic goal are difficultly coordinated. The author argues that since 1950’s, a kind of action rationality instead of a kind of rational action was adopted in the urban development in Dianchi Lake basin. The author puts forward that we must adopt rational action in the urban development in Dianchi Lake basin, and plan the urban development scale under the ecology supporting capacity of the entire Dianchi Lake basin. We must abandon the urban pattern that takes the modern quantity standard as the target when planning Kunming urban development, we should adopt the target of soft strength as the influence to promote Kunming urban area, and make the eco-environment of Dianchi Lake basin cultivate the ecology city under the benign movement which can be really livable in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau.

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CLC: > Environmental science, safety science > Environmental pollution and its prevention > Water pollution and its control > Lakes and reservoirs
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