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Zhuzhi poem research under the perspective of national literature

Author: ZhouJianJun
Tutor: ZhaoZhiZhong
School: Central University for Nationalities
Course: Comparative Literature and World Literature
Keywords: ethnic literature perspective Zhuzhi Poems study
CLC: I207.22
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 281
Quote: 1
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Originated from the ancient folk songs in Ba and Yu areas (approximately the border areas between present Chongqing and Hubei), the Zhuzhi Poems accumulated the significant historical and cultural heritages of local ethnic minorities. Although the Poems were mainly developed and promoted by Han Chinese men of letters, their styles were integrated with the poetic arts of such ancient ethnic minorities as the Ba, Puliao and Chu peoples living in these areas. As the Poems comprehensively combined the arts of music, dance and poetry, they were worthy of the living fossils of ancient arts in these areas. Particularly, some well-known poets of Tang Dynasty (618A.D.--907) such as Du Fu, Bai Juyi, Liu Yuxi and Yuan Zhen, when traveling around these areas, showed their interest in the Poems. For instance, during his stay at Kuizhou, Du Fu praised that "one would take three years to appreciate the rich folk songs in Ba and Yu areas" and "the Zhuzhi Poems cannot be sang out in a single day, the singers have to drive back their boats in late afternoon". Besides, Bai Juyi and Liu Yuxi, the great poets closely related to the ordinary people, first wrote the Zhuzhi Poems; among them, Bai led the works based on the Zhuzhi folk songs, and Liu created the style of Baidi Chengtou; and they both tried to match with the Jiu Ge written by the poetry master Qu Yuan (339BCE-278BCE). Later in Song Dynasty (960A.D.--1279), the great poets such as Su Shi, Su Zhe and Huang Tingjian appreciated and learned from the Tang poetic styles, and they respectively got inspiration from the Zhuzhi Poems in Ba and Yu areas. Then in Yuan Dynasty (1271A.D.--1368), the poetry masters such as Yang Weizhen established a center for promotion of the Zhuzhi Poems at the West Lake in present Hangzhou of Zhejiang. After the Ming Dynasty (1368A.D.--1644), the Poems went flourishing and arrived the prime in Qing Dynasty (1644A.D.--1911). As a term of comparative literature, ethic literature was generally used in comparative studies across languages, cultures and disciplines between nations or nationalities. From the perspective of ethic literature and focusing on the Zhuzhi Poems in Southwest China, this dissertation is intended to explore the Poems developed in ethnic migration and combination and discuss the origin of the Poems and the influence of Han Chinese men of letters on creation of the Poems.In the Introduction, the development of Zhuzhi Poems is briefly introduced so as to trace the creation and evolution of the Poems from the origin to the prime in Qing Dynasty. Moreover, the literature review of studies on the Poems is made, and the significance of study on the Poems from the perspective of ethnic literature is analyzed. Furthermore, the planning of current study and the inspiration from modern scholars are presented. The main contents of the dissertation are as follows:Chapter One lays the foundation for this dissertation. In this part, the associate relation between the Zhuzhi Poems and legendary ethnic origin stories of ancient minorities including the Ba, Panhu and Puliao peoples in Southwest China is analyzed; and the relationship between the Poems and songs and dances of these ancient peoples are discussed. Meanwhile, after systematically analyzed and studied the various opinions on the origin time and place of the Poems, the author proposes his own opinion on this topic.Chapter Two builds up the mainstay of the dissertation. In this part, after analyzing the etymology of the Zhuzhi Poems, the author concludes the three opinions on the origin of the name of such kind of poem, i.e. that from the "singing and dancing by the folks holding bamboo branches","harmonizing in singing and dancing" or "echoing in singing and dancing". In addition, the study of associate relation between the Zhuzhi Poems and legendary stories of the Bamboo Kings is focused; the stories of "Bamboo Gives Birth to Human" in mythological motifs of various ethnic origin legendaries are compared; and the migration route of Liao people is analyzed. Moreover, the cultural background of Zhuzhi Poem development is discussed; the characteristics released in the forms, comments and notes of the Poems are concluded; and the evolution of Zhuzhi Poem concept and creation is also described.Chapter Three constitutes the important contents of the dissertation. In reference to Chapter Two, this part introduces the spread of Zhuzhi Poems in ethnic minority areas and the creation of the Poems by men of letters. The Poems were developed under the efforts of both ethnic Han and minority men of letters. The spread and development of the Poems in ancient Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, west Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi and ethnic minority areas in the North are elaborated. And the characteristics of the themes, contents, concepts, styles, linguistic arts and ways of expression of Zhuzhi Poems created by ethnic minority men of letters are also concluded.Based on the analysis and comparison in Chapter Three, Chapter Four mainly describes the respective contributions of ethnic Han men of letters to the composition, concept, style and form of the Poems. In this part, the works of key Han literary figures in various dynasties are introduced so as to dig out the influence of mainstream of literature, history and politics to the Poems. Especially, the potential mutual influence between ethnic Han men of letters creating the Poems and their influence to the creation of the Poems by ethnic minority men of letters are also discussed.The Conclusion part presents a summary of the dissertation. In this part, some related documentations are quoted and the related concepts in the Zhuzhi Poems are introduced, thereby it is concluded that the Ba people were fond of singing and dancing, and they adhered to the tradition of singing such folk songs as the Xiali, Baren and Bayu, and the Liao people brought the customs of Bamboo King worship and Bamboo Mother sacrifice in the migration after the Chenghan Dynasty (304A.D.--347). In the Wushan area, a place of significant historical and cultural heritages, various folk customs were combined and the typical styles of folk songs in areas of ancient west Hubei, east Chongqing and north Hunan were absorbed, thereby the Zhuzhi Poems with unique ethnic and folk characteristics and styles were developed and spread in these areas.

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