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The Study on the Thoughts about Taoism of Mou Zongsan and It’s Meaning

Author: LiuKun
Tutor: ZhangNengWei
School: Anhui University
Course: Chinese Philosophy
Keywords: Mou Zongsan Taoism non-duality existential philosophy
CLC: B261
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 128
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Mr. Mou Zongsan,one of the most important representatives of modern New-Confucianism,tried to give priority to Kant’s philosophy of the western philosophy and dialogued with Chinese traditional philosophy. He reinterpreted the Chinese philosophy constructively, which included three important classic texts just as Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism.Based on the integration of resources including ancient and modern philosophy,no matter what is oriental or occidental,he builded up his own modern New-Confucianism system,which toped priority to the Confucian Idealism.His philosophy was considered as the "contemporary Lu-Wang school", and known as the "moral metaphysics".After establishing his own system of moral metaphysics, Mou Zongsan developed his original thoughts of political philosophy furthermore.These thoughts are "self-negation of Conscience" and "internal saints of Chinese traditional culture with outside the king of modern political system". Mr. Mou Zongsan brought out the most original thought about the " self-negation of Conscience ", that is to try to rebuild the modern pattern of the traditional Confucian Idealism theory. And in the constructional process of the New-Confucianism system, Mou Zongsan didn’t reject Buddhist thought and Taoist thought. From beginning to end,he put the Confucianism, Buddhism or Taoism as the indispensable part of Chinese traditional culture. He not only reinterpreted the classic texts of the Buddhism and Taoism, but also did a lot of detailed works. His study of the interpretation of the taoist thought,in particular,has much distinguishing feature. He believed that the Taoist thought wasn’t the thought of the traditional interpretation,which considered the taolist thought as the metaphysics of real state. In addition, he borrowed the Wang Bi’s "Lao Zi" annotation and the Xiang Xiu&Guo Xiang’"Zhuang Zi" annotation from the representatives of the Metaphysics in Wei-Jin period,who were Wang Bi,Xiang Xiu and Guo Xiang.Finally, Mou Zongsan was derived his new thought of "non-duality between the light and the dust",and even that was the round teaching in the Taoism.This round teaching of the Taoist school, in Mr. Mou’s view,was just considered as the thought of "extremely wise and the doctrine of the mean" from the round teaching in Confucianism.This paper holds the thoughts about Taoism’s interpretation of Mr. Mou Zongsan as " non-duality between the light and the dust".From the view of Existentialism,Mou Zongsan pointed out the positioning of the Taoist thought. In some extent, this paper borrowed the theory of the hermeneutics for getting the clearly interpreting path of the interprtation in the Taoist thought of Mou Zongsan. From this basis, I want to unearth some enlightenments and pointing from the interpretation about the Taoist thought of Mou Zongsan.And I find that these enlightmengts and pointing is very important to the construction of the New-Taoist’s thought system.In preface,I mainly introduced the origin of this research work and the theoretical premise of this research work. And then,I analyzed the horizons of the issues involved in this research. Next step,I tried to comb the research field and the research status at home and abroad.Finally, I analysed the innovations in this research work.The main body of this paper is divided into six chapters altogether. The first four chapters tried to fully present the understanding of the Taoist thought by Mou Zongsan with a certain logical order.I tried to present the Taoist thought of development steps by the method of phenomenological reduction. By the way,I made a lot of comments about Mou’s understanding in this combing work.Standing in front of Mou Zongsan’s Taoist thought reading,the last two chapters specified the logical framework and the ideas of Mou’s understanding combined with the theory of philosophical hermeneutics.From the Mou Zongsan’s interpretation of Taoist thought,I developed some new analyses and unique understanding.And then,from the Taoist thought of Mou Zongsan’s interpretation I excavated some building inspiration and pointing for the construction of contemporary New-Taoism. Specifically, the general content of each chapter is introduced as follows:In the first chapter,Mou Zongsan interpreted the classic passages of the Taoist text about "inaction and all action"going along with some road signsjust as some key words in the classic text included in "Lao Zi" and "Zhuang zi",which are "No","Have","Xuan".And then, from the word to sentence,then to paragraph,the understanding of the progressive has been explained step by step.Eventually,the "dao" of the Taoism was explained.The second chapter,through the study of Kant’s moral philosophy,Mou Zongsan launched an analysis about the core concept "intellectual intuition" included in the Kant’s moral philosophy and put this problem extended the range to the Chinese philosophy,which includes Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.In my opinion, the understanding of "intellectual intuition", which should be the first core of the differences between Chinese and western culture.And then I combed the analysis about "intellectual intuition" of Taoism by Mou Zongsan, and points out the positive meaning of the interpretation by Mou Zongsan.The third chapter, on the basis of the first two chapters, through "one mind with two doors" included in the Tiantai sect of Buddhism and the thought of "two layer being theory" by Mou Zongsan, through the core ideas of the Taoism——"non-duality between the light and the dust","nothing","have" and the creation style of the Taoist,Mou Zongsan intended to give Taoist thought a original definition,which is called "Non-attachment Ontology". Mou Zongsan thought that the Taoism is a kind of "throughout the horizontal stresses" thoughts. I pointed out that Mou Zongsan put "one mind with two doors" as the universial solution for " internal saints of Chinese traditional culture with outside the king of modern political system " and "self-negation of Conscience."Two shades Ontology" includes "Attachment Ontology" and "Non-attachment Ontology",which respectively correspond to the Phenomenon and the Ontology. These "two s hades Ontology" all have the infinite heart(in the Confucianism as the conscience, in the Taoism as the "Daoxin xuanzhi", in the Buddhism as the Wisdom Prajna). And the interpretation of the "Non-attachment Ontology" in the Taoism under the of Mou Zongsan,has a lot of positive significance for social and political problems.In my opinion,it reflected many liberal ideas in the Taoist philosophy, and it also reinforced the construction of New-Taoism.In the fourth chapter,Mou Zongsan interpreted the classic passages of the Taoist text about "inaction and all action"going along with some road signsjust as some key words in the classic text included in "Lao Zi" and "Zhuang zi",which are "No","Have","Xuan" and so on.His theory of interpretation used the "mark and ghost" theory in the Wei and Jin dynasty. Then he used the dialectics,and that is the way to the Taoist round teaching.Additionally,Mou Zongsan broke the tradition that Zhu Xi has seen the Taoism always as a taboo.Finally, Mou Zongsan was deduced the thought of "non-duality between the light and the dust" from round teaching level in the Taoism.This round teaching level of the Taoist school, in Mr. Mou’s view,was just considered as the thought of "extremely wise and the doctrine of the mean" from the round teaching state in Confucianism.The fifth chapter,I used the theory of philosophical hermeneutics, and unearthed a Mou Zongsan’s unique originality thought "conscience self-neggation",which was the development path of the new interpretation.The "extremely wise and the doctrine of the mean" of Confucian and the Taoist " non-duality between the light and the dust "are constructed in the "Non-duality" as the theory basis.The next part,to put the Mou Zongsan’s philosophy of the Taoist interpretation as a path, I hoped to find some positive meaning to the contemporary constructing the theory.I wish the pointing is the Taoist Existentialism theory. This New-Taoism’s construction theory explored more survival significances. The new Taoist philosophy respectively is embodied in about life philosophy and political philosophy.The last is conclusion.I came to conclusion:Mou Zongsan borrowed "one mind with two doors" of the Buddhism as the universal architecture in the interpretation of Chinese philosophy.Mou Zongsan created the word "non-duality between light and dust not two" of Taoist thought, and accommodated with Confucianism. Based on this philosophy, Mou Zongsan solved the problem of political reality,which was named as "self-negation of conscience" and " internal saints of Chinese traditional culture with outside the king of modern political system". In the new era,which is stored and standing in the field of ethics of Chinese traditional culture, the Confucian theory of legitimacy, not the loss of excellent traditional culture in our generation, at the same time can actively learn with the opening attitude in system level and uses the modern western advanced political system pattern, thus for the first time in the philosophical level can ensure that the "internal saints" and "external king" parallel of the two. In Mou Zongsan’s interpretation and my interpretation of the process, also reflected the interpretation principles of philosophical hermeneutics, namely to multidimensional perspective, in different angles, repeatedly, the interpretation of the classic text back and forth, which can make the classic evergreen. Because in the history of interpretation of classical texts, there are thousands of people to the same classic texts having different interpretations of the text.And the text itself does not speak.So, how can we locate for a classic text? This is also a concept of phenomenology:"something behind phenomenon is nothing." That is to say, we have a hypothesis for the classic text meaning. And this meaning is constantly reinterpreted in a variety of perspectives, among the various angles it is gradually come out clearly. Out of these individual interpretation, the meaning of the classic texts does not exist.The interpretation of Mou Zongsan in the Taoist thought can give the Taoist thought some new interpretations and meanings just because Mou Zonsan has the unique perspective and differented from the traditional interpretation of the Confucian. Then this new interpretation and meaning will produce certain effect to the construction of the new Taoism in contemporary. At last,I also evaluate the new interpretation of Mou Zongsan in Taoist thought as an existential philosophy, and hope the development of new Taoist philosophy to the direction of existential philosophy.This also is the most innovative research work of this paper.

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