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The Answering of Moral:Regarding of Huang Zongxi’s Heart-mind Theory

Author: LanFaDian
Tutor: YanBingZuo
School: Shandong University
Course: Chinese Philosophy
Keywords: Huang Zongxi Liu Zongzhou Wang Yangming the successors ofWang Yangming "Ming Yi Dai Fang Lu" "Ming Ru Xue An"
CLC: B249.3
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 40
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Most of the Confucians during the transitional period of theMing Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty, especially Huang Zongxi, possessed a manner of salvation to introspect the scholarism of the Ming Dynasty. Not like Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, Huang’s thoughts did not have the theoretical character to represent the the whole age. While he had the nonnegligible vaule to the scholarism of the Ming Dynasty, especially how to introspect the heart-mind theory and understand the whole trend of the Ming’s scholarism. He reflected the critical principle of these scholars who affected by the manner of salvation, which is still the eternal thought in modern Confucian academia.This paper mainly discussed the heart-mind theory of Huang Zongxi, the construct of political theory on such background, and his criticism on Confucianism study in Ming Dynasty. The heart-mind theory of Huang based on the thought of his teacher Liu Zongzhou, possessed a critical standpoint of the whole scholarism of the Ming Dynasty. The political theory revealed in his "Ming Yi Dai Fang Lu" was just based on this standpoint and introspected the history of politics in the Ming Dynasty. His theory of politics emphasized that politics was the extending of moral in public sphere. The power of a monarch originated from his noble moral. The political power was unreasonable if the monarch was not equipped with this kind of moral. He described an ideal image of a judicious monarch during the Xia Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty who owned both power and moral. After this period, the judicious monarch divided into the Confucian who stood for moral and the king who stood for power. The reasonable coexistence of the two was called republic, which represented the right trend of politics in later generations. Any attempt which aimed to break the coexistence was regarded as character of hard times."Ming Ru Xue An" systematically stated Huang’s point on the development of Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty. He divided it into two threads. The first one was from Baisha via Yangming to Taizhou, the second was from Baisha via Ganquan to Jishan. The Confucianism before Baisha still continued the old theory of the scholars in the Song Dynasty, and had not its own character. The Confucianism of Ming Dynasty did not find its own character only after Baisha created the cultivation way of subjectivness. The evolution situation of Yangming and his successors was the main stream of the theory in the Ming Dynasty. Huang not only detaildly stated the evolution situation of Yangmingology, regarded the school of Jiangyou as the orthodox successor of Yangming, but also regarded the series from Ganquan to Jishan as a mirror to reflect Yangmingology, and considered the advantages and the weakness of the thought of Yangming can be well solve and carry on in the system of Jishan. The reason made him regard the school of Jiangyou, which emphasize the postnatal as the orthodox successor of the school of Yangming, and the thought of Jishan, which focused on change one’s evil way and reform as the summary of the thoughts in Ming Dynasty.Huang had a historical summary on Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty and had a historical consciousness on the Song Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty. Hence, in his eyes, the heart-mind theory had no difference with the Confucianism in the Song Dynasty but was contained inthe Confucianism in the Song Dynasty. His judgement on the scholars in the Ming dynasty revealed such trend like he analysed their thoughts in a way of seeking common ground while reserving difference under the traditional Confucianism background. The reason of Huang’s regarding the thoughts from Jiangyou to Jishan, which focused on moral and sit quietly as a kind of positive thought in Ming Dynasty was that he aimed to continue the Confucians in Song Dynasty. And it was his appliance in the history of scholarism. Huang regarded the datas about the thought of Yangming and his successors as the doubtful history because the moral thought them differed greatly from the scholars in Song Dynasty. His directly or indirectly criticism on Yangmingology was available everywhere in the book.The heart-mind thought of Huang Zongxi can be understood from two aspects. First, his moral standpoint made him emphasize the moral and statecraft of the Confucious. He proposed the thought that ontology was that one has practiced in "Ming Ru Xue An" which was similar with the thought of Chen Que. Second, his explanation to the thought of Jishan can be totally regarded as the entire thought of himself. The thought of Jishan which he inherited can be grasped by three purposes contains the philosophical connotations, Yi Li Yuan Rong, spread of gracified. How to treat heart-mind, nature, principle, qi as the way of Yi Li Yuan Rong under the view of philosophical connotations, how to amplify the importance of moral in governing a person was the aim and philosophical connotations of his heart-mind thought.The statement of the thought of Jishan can not be avoided while understanding the thought of Huang. The thought of Jishan had vital meaning to Huang, and was the aim program to financing these thoughts of scholars in "Ming Ru Xue An". From this aspect, this paper’s discussion on the thought of Jishan was necessary.The thought of Jishan can be grasped from three aspects. First was Shendu. Second was Chenyi. Third was the spread of gracified. Huang had no proper understand to combine Liu’s early thought and the thought of Chenyi because of his own heart-mind accomplishment. Thought he made every effort to entrust his thought of the spread of gracified unavoidable moral meaning from the aspect of principal part in his Mencius Shishuo. However, this attempt was eventually extincted in the convience of the spread of qi with existence Yi.The meaning of the thought of Jishan in the history of academic writings. In Huang’s point, the most discussed point of the thought of Yangming was unrealistic. He criticized Yangming’s thought of moral and the true heart and made a lot of new explanation. He limited Yangming’s thought of moral within the start of cultivation, and regarded Wang Longxi’s thought as a abuse to Yangming’s Liangzhi thought, the the thought of the school of Jiangyou as the cultivational repair of the abuse of Longxi and the successors of Taizhou. He once sighed his successor Wang yushi and revealed his regret. His insistance on moral can be the entry point to understand Liu and Huang and also the evolution process of the Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty.

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CLC: > Philosophy, religion > Chinese Philosophy > Philosophy of the Qing Dynasty (1644 ~ 1840 ) > Huang Zongxi ( pear State,1610 to 1695 )
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