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The Vulnerability-Stress Model of Suicidal Ideation Among High School Students:a Multi-wave Longitudinal Study

Author: ChenJun
Tutor: YaoShuQiao
School: Central South University
Course: Applied Psychology
Keywords: suicidal ideation vulnerability-stress model depressive symptoms hierarchical linear model (HLM) high schoolstudents
CLC: B846
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 290
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Abstract


Objective:(1)To describe the development tendency of high school students’suicidal ideation;(2) To explore the effects of the interpersonal relationship and stress on high school students’suicidal ideation, and construct the interpersonal vulnerablity-stress model;(3) To explore the effects of the cognitive factors and stress on high school students’suicidal ideation, and construct the cognitive vulnerablity-stress model;(4) To explore the effects of the personality factor and stress on high school students’ suicidal ideation, and construct the personality vulnerablity-stress model;(5) To test the impact of the depressive symptoms on the above models.Methods:In the longitudinal study,618high school students completed the following9scales at initial assessment to assess sucidal ideation, depressive symptoms, life events, social support, unsecure attachment, family environment, negative cognitive inference, rumination and neurotic personality:(1) suicidal ideation questionnaire (SIQ),(2) center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D),(3) adolescent life events quetionnaire-revised (ALEQ-R),(4) social support scale for children and adolescents (SSSCA),(5) adolecents attachment questionnaire (AAQ),(6) family environment scale (FES),(7) cognitive style questionnaire for adolescents (CSQ-A),(8)rumination response scale (RRS),(9) NEO five factor inventory-neuroticism subscale (NEO-FFI-N). Researchers returned to the schools to meet with students every three months for the subsequent21months (i.e.,3months,6months,9months,12months,15months,18months and21months). At each of these follow-up assessments, students completed each of the following questionnaires:(1) SIQ,(2) CES-D,(3) ALEQ-R. The vulnerability-stress models for suicidal ideation were tested by hierarchical linear model (HLM).Results:(1) The mean score of SIQ at FU3,FU5and FU7was higher than that of FU2, FU4and FU6.(2) In the longitudinal study, except initial and FU2assessments, the SIQ score of boys were higher than that of girls (t=2.022-4.373,p<0.05); For depressive symptoms, there were significant gender differences only at FU2and FU5assessnemts, and boys were lower than girls (t=-2.945;-2.671,p<0.01); For life events, there were significant gender differences only at FU1and FU2assessnemts, and also boys were lower than girls (t=-2.015;-2.269, p<0.05).(3) Before controlling the effects of depressive symptoms, the interaction effects of interpersonal relationship and stress were significant as follows:life events×parent support(β=0.04,F(1,3065)=12.28,p<0.001), life events×unsecure attachment (β=0.05, F(1,3093)=16.14, p<0.001), and life events×family cohension(β=-0.03, F(1,3135)=6.89,p<0.05); life events×family conflicts was not significant)β=0.01, F(1,3163)=0.05, p>0.05).(4) Before controlling the effects of depressive symptoms, only the interaction effect of negative cognitive inference and stress was significant(β=0.03, F(1,3072)=4.16,p<0.05); life events x brooding(β=0.01, F(1,3163)=0.05, p>0.05) and life events x reflection (β=0.01, F(1,3163)=0.05, p>0.05) were not significant.(5) Before controlling the effects of depressive symptoms, life events x neurotic personality (β=0.03, F(1,2963)=4.35, p<0.05) was significant.(6) After controlling the effects of depressive symptoms, life events x parent support (β=0.04, F(1,2504)=9.60, p<0.05) and life events x unsecure attachment (β=0.04, F(1,2531)=11.63, p<0.001) were still significant.(7) After controlling the effects of depressive symptoms, life events×negative cognitive inference (β=0.03,F(1,2507)=5.89, p<0.05) were still significant.(8) After controlling the effects of depressive symptoms, life events x neurotic personality (β=0.01, F(1,2441)=0.64,p>0.05) became nonsignificant.Conclusion:(1) In21months, the scores of SIQ in high school students’were up and down, and the SIQ of boys were higher than that of girls.(2) The results that parent support, unsecure attachment, and family cohension moderated the relationship between life events and suicidal ideation provided evidences to the interpersonal vulnerablity-stress model of suicidal ideation.(3) The results that negative cognitve reference moderated the relationship between life events and suicidal ideation supported the cognitive vulnerablity-stress model of suicidal ideation.(4) The results that neurotic personality moderated the relationship between life events and suicidal ideation supported the personality vulnerablity-stress model of suicidal ideaiton.(5) Depressive symptoms could affect the personality vulnerablity-stress model of suicidal ideation.

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