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Research on the Changes of Disasters Management Ideas of New China

Author: HuHuan
Tutor: ChaDaoLin
School: China University of Geosciences
Course: Management Science and Engineering
Keywords: disaster management idea evolution pattern development trend
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 167
Quote: 0
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China is one of the few countries which suffer the most serious natural disasters in the world. The disasters have various types, large range, frequent reaction and serious damage. This terribly delays the development of our economy and brings great losses to national and demotic wealth. Therefore, the disaster management is a hot tissue concerned by the whole society. In the course of fighting with the natural disasters Chinese nation accumulates abundant experience. After the founding of new China, the Party and the government give full attention about it. A series of scientific and effective management ideas have been formed through the course of disaster prevention, fighting and relief. These become the important part of China’s excellent treasures of ideas.The aim of this paper is to study the development and evolution of the disaster management ideas during the more than sixty years of new China by using management, history, sociology and other disciplines of knowledge and methods from the perspective of the history of management ideas. From the related concepts of disaster management ideas, this paper reviews the development of China’s traditional ideas on disaster relief, systematically combs the main contents of disaster management ideas after the founding of new China, makes evaluation analysis of the overall development of the ideas in different historical period, analyzes the conclusion of the development and the evolution characteristics and law, then to discuss the ideas’ development trend of the future. According to the division of development of the economic system reform stage and combined with the field of disaster management’s major reform task and change, this paper divides the development of disaster management ideas of the PRC into four stages, namely exploration stage of disaster management ideas (1949-1978), change of the ideas (1979-1992), forming stage of ideas (1993-2002) and the development phase of ideas (2003-present).Chapter one introduces the propose, research purpose, significance and aim of the topic. It also elaborates the existing problems of the research status at home and abroad; it defines the concepts of management idea, disaster management, and disaster management idea. On this base, it analyzes the relationship between management idea and system, the relationship of management ideas and practice; it illustrates the main content of thesis research, research methods; on the basis of the historical stage of economic system reform, the new China’s disaster management idea is divided into four historical stages.Chapter two traces the disaster management ideas of new China. It grasps the ideas of PRC from three angles. First of all, the new China’s disaster management ideas derived from the inheritance of the ancient Chinese traditional thoughts on disaster relief. Destiny to rid of socialism concept is the primitive form of ancient Chinese disaster relief ideas. At the same time, there were many relief ideas which can efficiently deal with the difficulties of the victims of natural disasters. Such as relieving, grain requisitioning, pensioning, disaster eliminating, and soothing. These ideas constitutes the finalizing ideas of the ancient disaster relief ideas. All of these ideas are the transitions from the destiny to passive disaster relief form. The appearances of ideas such as storing up grains against crop failure indicates that Chinese ancient relief ideas gradually mature and complete the fundamental shift from passive disaster relief to active prevention. Second, new China’s disaster management ideas come from the relief thoughts in modern China. In a transformation process from traditional society to modern society, the field of disaster management also presented the characteristics such as the diversification of the subject and relief ways, the standardization of the relief system. It began to shift from traditional to modern. In democratic revolution period, the communist party of China regarded self-reliance and production relief as the core according to their own disaster relief materials reserve and emergency conditions. It insisted on the guiding ideology that the simple relief should be changed into the produce relief. And this idea provided a reference for the form of the disaster management system after the founding of PRC. Finally, the disaster management ideas of the PRC are from the application of western modern management theory. Along with the growing complexity of the object in disaster management, we need the help of the scientific and quantitative management methods to meet the needs of actual management work. The use of system theory, cybernetics and information theory in disaster management directly promoted the development of the disaster management ideas.Chapter three the evolution of the disaster management ideas, which is divided into four stages. Expletory stage of disaster management thoughts (1949-1978). First is the historical background analysis. After the founding of new China, we completed the new-democratic revolution and the socialist transformation, and established the basic socialist system, and succeeded in achieving the most profound and greatest social change in China’s history. However, in the late1950s,"left" ideological trend and the "cultural revolution" had a devastating effect on national economy and social life. Under the condition of historical background of the planned economy system, new China’s disaster management idea and management mode are initially shaped. Followed by organizing the main content of this phase. Based on the national condition of the frequency of natural disaster, the Party and the government are of the utmost importance to disaster management, and formulated the guiding ideology:"in case priority to, as well as combination of prevention","save the first" and "working instead of rescuing". With the continuous development of the route of the Party and state’s policies, and the changing social environment, disaster relief policies also change in our country, but the guiding ideology of "production of self-help supplemented""national relief" is the same as before. Disaster relief is not only related to people’s life and property safety, more related to the consolidation problem of the new regime. Therefore, emphasizing political relief is an important content during the period. In the1950s, our country has formed the situation of the disaster prevention and disaster relief combined with production, which shows that in the first decade of the founding of the Party and the government work in the center of the stress relief for production at the same time, recognized the importance of prevention and rescue. Again, the first generation of collective leadership with MAO Zedong as the core of the central party committee has related saying about disaster prevention. In this paper, he disaster management thoughts of MAO Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Xie Juezai are analyzed. In the case analysis part, by the disaster relief management practice of1976Tangshan earthquake, analyze the disaster management idea under the planned economy. During1949-1976, China’s disaster management ideas took production disaster relief as the center, emphasis on self-reliance. The central government is the sole responsibility of the main body, and at the same time, paying attention to main body of the people. Under the historical condition of "taking the class struggle as the key link", the earthquake relief pattern highlights the spearhead of "political".The change of disaster management ideas (1979-1992). First, the history background analysis. After the third plenary session of the eleventh1978, a hot wave of reform of all walks of life was raised in the whole country. With the deepening of the rural economic system reform, and the wide of the implementation of the household contract responsibility system, farmers’life was improved, and the post-disaster aid and communal ability was greatly ascended. At the same time, the fiscal system reform led to that the disaster management system was not adapted to the needs of social and economic development, so disaster relief management reform is imperative. During this period, in response to the UN’s call to set up "international decade of disaster mitigation" committee in our country, it carried out disaster reduction management activities. Second, sum up the main content of disaster management ideas of this period. After the reform and opening up, the Party and the government regression scientific understanding of the management of the natural disasters. The disaster management ideas mainly includes:all-in relief funds thought, becoming free of the combination of relief for part of the paid support, disaster relief and poverty alleviation, the combination of disaster relief and insurance, the principle of relief management special fund is special, the idea of accepting international relief aid, insisting on grasping and mitigation in grasping the thought of economic construction. Again, analyze the ideas of disaster management of taking Deng Xiaoping as the core of the central committee of the second generation leadership. Through the earthquake relief case of Lancang, Gengma, and Cnagyuan in1988, analyze the disaster management ideas used in practice during the exploration period. Finally the evolution of the management thought of this period. The disaster management change during1979-1992was forward under the condition of complicated background, taking the way of gradual reform and strategy, and achieved some results. But on accepting international aid relief, there was still "left" ideological shackles. In addition, the concept of integrated disaster mitigation in academic circles was put forward, and led to disaster management academic research in the field of boom.The formation of disaster management idea stage (1993-2002). First of all, analyze the historical background. In1993, the third plenary session of the fourteenth formulated an action plan for the development of he socialist market economy in our country and basic guidelines to define the basic framework of socialist market economy system. Facing the new situation, the disaster management system is facing new challenges and opportunities. Secondly, organize the main content of disaster management ideas of this period. Hierarchical management thought, and the law of the People’s Republic of China on disaster mitigation planning (1998-2010) marks the natural disaster management in our country has entered a new stage of development. Again, analyze the disaster management idea of the third generation collective leadership with Jiang Zemin as the core of he central part committee, through the management practice of flood relief in1998reflecting the management thought of this stage. Finally, analyze and evaluate the disaster management idea. During1993-2002, hierarchical management thought is adapted to the needs of the economic system reform, and improved the level of disaster management. The concept of disaster management mainly turned from disaster relief to giving priority to disaster prevention and reduction.The development of disaster management ideas (2003-now). With the scientific outlook on development, and people-oriented governing idea put forward, comprehensive disaster reduction ability construction and the emergency system construction has become the era of disaster management guiding ideology. This section issued by state laws and regulations of the analysis of comprehensive disaster reduction ability construction thought, through the analysis of the existing disaster management system for the construction of the national emergency system construction ideas. In the part of case analysis, select the disaster management practice of Wenchuan earthquake in2008, showing that national disaster management ideological guidelines for management practice of the period. During2003-now, the disaster management idea embodies the inevitable requirement of scientific development concept, embodies the people-oriented governing idea, at the same time, emphasizes the integrity of construction of the emergency management system requirements.Chapter four involves the comparative study of disaster management ideas at home and abroad. Firstly, this study compares the disaster management systems in China, United States and Japan. Based on a respective comparison of the following four aspects, that is, the degree of legalization in disaster management, the organizational structure of disaster management systems, the emergency response mechanism of disaster relief and the post-disaster relief, an analysis of the reasons why disaster management systems differ in the three countries is carried out, which can be used for reference purposes. Secondly, this study identifies the similarities and differences through a comparison of the disaster management ideas of the four generations of central collective leadership of Chinese Communist Party and draws the conclusion that there are both historical inheritance and development and innovation.Chapter five conducts an overall examination of the development of disaster management ideas in PRC. This part summarizes in an overall manner and analyzes the development and evolution of disaster management ideas:the shift from disaster relief to disaster prevention and mitigation in terms of the emphasis of disaster management concepts; the shift from economic loss reduction to people-oriented concept in terms of the aim of disaster management; the shift from the situation in which everything is undertaken by the central government to hierarchical responsibility and management respectively shared by the central and the local governments in terms of responsibilities of disaster relief; the shift from oneness to socialization in terms of the principal participant of disaster relief; the shift from post-disaster relief to comprehensive relief; the shift from experience-based management to the systematic management which integrates preplanning with emergency operation; and the shift from information blockage to information access. This part also summarizes the evolution pattern of disaster management ideas in PRC:the evolution of disaster management ideas is affected by factors of economic systems and culture; disaster management ideas transfer from conservative to open and from decentralized to systematic; the core of the development of disaster management ideas lies in the formation and development of people-oriented concept; the development of disaster management ideas depends heavily upon the constant development and improvement of socialist system; and, the material basis of disaster management ideas lies in the growth of comprehensive national power. For future disaster management ideas, increasing emphasis will be placed on the application of scientific management ideas and technology, the opening up to and cooperation with the outside world, the all-around socialized disaster relief, and the establishment and development of laws and regulations.Chapter six summarizes this overall research and examines its prospects. This part deals with this doctoral thesis in an overall manner and specifies its conclusions as well as the topics of future research. The shining points of this research are mainly introduced in the following research aspects, firstly, the division of the four historical stages in the development and evolution of disaster management ideas in the PRC as well as the summarization of characteristics in each stage; secondly, the comparison of disaster management ideas from the four generations of central collective leadership of Chinese Communist Party; thirdly, the summarization of the development and evolution pattern of disaster management ideas in the PRC as well as the analysis of the future development trends of disaster management ideas by dealing with this evolution process.

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