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The Research on Commodity Economy of Henan Province in Qing Dynasty

Author: WuZhiYuan
Tutor: XuTan
School: Nankai University
Course: History of Ancient China
Keywords: Henan in Qing Dynasty Commodity Economy Commercialtown
CLC: F329
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 75
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Henan Province was lying at the south of North China Plain, and was near toHebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Shanxi, Hubei and Anhui. It was the most important areawhich was good at agriculture as its prefect climate, indefinite resource and water.There are different Economic Zones because its different Geographical conditions.Since Qing Dynasty, the cultivated land areas had improved compared with MingDynasty since the development of agriculture and the expansion of population. As theplant could be multiple cropped, three crops in two years and two crops in oneyear is prevail. The corn and potatoes are widely cropped. The production wasdeveloping fast as the multiple cropping, the new plants, Economic crops showedmore commercialization, cotton, herbal medicine and oil plants were widely grew.The Handicraft industry had a lot of sour resource, it developed fast. Mangy peoplewere employed in spinning, mining, brewing and so on. The old economic structurewas broken, which was benefit for commodity economy.Grain, cotton and herbal medicine could be the most important agricultureproduction and life information in Henan during Qing Dynasty. The market in urbanand village was the junior one, where there was a large trade for grain, cotton andherbal medicine. The grain was the main place of production in north and east Henanprovince. The grain markets were a lot. The cotton had a high production in west andsouth Henan, so is the trade in market. The Hui, Yu, Neixiang, where the herbalmedicine were of a large trade. The important urban, was the senior market in Grain,cotton and herbal trading. Further circulation during the provinces was available sinceconvenient traffic.Land, domestic animals, iron and fund were important means of production inHenan. The middle of Qing Dynasty was the perfect period in Henan’s land market.The land was traded much and had a high price, which was similar with Luoyang.Domestic animals were important commodity in villages. The growing of the marketwas reflecting the transport and trade in distant. During the middle of Qing Dynasty, the tax of domestic animals was always increasing. The circulation of iron, wasreflecting the trade between Henan and Shanxi, and it was the optimal allocation oflife information and means of production in different areas. The pawn brokingbusiness developed fast during Qing Dynasty, the pawnshops were a lot. Thecirculation of small amount fund were popular in villages.The main business urban flourished during the middle of Qing Dynasty since thecirculation in the life information and means of production. Kaifeng and Luoyangdeveloped fast in business compared with Ming Dynasty. The structure of Kaifeng’sbusiness had changed. The expanse in market was the articles of everyday use.Luoyang became the center of cloth merchants from Shanxi and Shanxi. It relies thetravelling trader.The main business towns were superior to Kaifeng and Luoyang. Qinghua town,Zhuxian town, Zhoukou town and Sheqi town had a prefect Tran trade since theirtraffic. Qinghua town was the biggest centre for iron trading, it was also the area ofthe business trade during Shanxi and Henan. Zhuxian town and Zhoukou townflourished by Jalu River. Zhuxian town was the biggest business town in north Henanduring Qing Dynasty, just to work upon Kaifeng, Guide and north Henan. Zhoukoutown was the important business center during South China and east of Henan, fromwhere grain, other commodities could be taken into circulation. Sheqi was theimportant business centre during Northwest China and South China; it was also thepassageway that the Shanxi trader could transport tea.The local merchants were gradually growing since the development ofcommodity economy. Wuan merchants and Huaiqing merchants were representative.The perfect traffic, indefinite resource, the pressure of population during QingDynasty, the connection of traveling traders, made their appearance. Since the middleof Qing Dynasty, the two groups developed fast. They had been local merchant fromtransporting traders as the expanse of their business.

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