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Investigation and Countermeasures Study on the Custodian Care of Mentally Deficient People in the Main Urban Area of Harbin Municipality

Author: GuTianYu
Tutor: LiJingHua
School: Jilin University
Course: Public Health
Keywords: Mentally Deficient People Custodian Care Present Situation Needs
CLC: D669.69
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 36
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Abstract


Objective:Mentally deficient people are those disabled who have significant lowerintelligence level than common people, also accompanied with adaptive behaviordisorders. In the past, it was each individual household that held the majorresponsibilities for nurturing and caring the mentally deficient people. The livingcost of such a family would therefore be much higher than that of a normal family.The parents in employment age group are often in a dilemma between work andchildcare. Judging from international experience, the main channel to solve thisproblem is to provide custodian care services. The start and development ofcustodian care service in China was a bit late. The significant slowness ofconstruction of service institutions, investment of public finance, training ofprofessional teams, development of service capabilities, etc. cannot meet thecustodian care needs of the great number of mentally deficient people, henceconstraining the building of sound and complete social security system. Therefore,the development of the custodian care service of the mentally deficient people is notonly an objective demand to improve their living quality but also a necessity to thedevelopment of disabled care and social progress. This paper aims to understand thepresent situation and the custodian care needs in respect of education, economy andlifestyle of mentally deficient people in the main urban area (Daoli District, DaowaiDistrict, Nan’gang District, Xiangfang District) of Harbin city, master the trainingneeds on custodian care of the mentally deficient people in service agencies and special-education schools in Harbin, and explore the factors affecting the custodiancare needs of the mentally deficient people in Harbin by focusing on those mentallydeficient people in communities, service agencies and special-education schools. It isalso for the purpose of making pointed references for creating better conditions forthe custodian care work of mentally deficient people, providing grounds for thegovernment to issue relevant supporting policies, and eventually facilitating theconstruction of the disabled custodian care service system in Harbin.Methods:Using questionnaire investigation, archive retrieval, site visits, discussions withtrainers, telephone interview of their guardians, and other methods to carry out theinvestigation on the mentally deficient people in the custodian care center in Harbin,special-education schools and communities. The questionnaire investigation includes:Basic information (name, gender, date of birth, nationality, home address, disabilityrating, etc.), self-help abilities, education level, financial condition of the family,custodian care needs, training needs, etc.Results:1. In the eight districts and10counties (cities) under the jurisdiction of Harbinmunicipality, the mentally deficient people account for9.09%of the total populationof people with disabilities. The mentally deficient people in these four districts ofDaoli, Nan’gang, Xiangfang and Daowai account for43.50%of the total populationof mentally deficient people in the whole municipality.2. The investigation on the143mentally deficient people in14communitiesshows that the Level I and Level II severely disabled accounts for60.14%. Familieswith income less than CNY500account for64.34%; and46.15%of such familieswith disabled people receive subsistence allowances. As regards employment,95.10%of the mentally deficient people are jobless or without any working skills.The employment rate is only4.9%. As regards education, about55.24%havereceived no education or training. As regards custodian care needs, about35.67%ofthem are willing to accept residential care support or agency service. The financial condition of a family with a disabled person, the self-help degree of such a person aswell as his educational background may deliver significant difference on the "yes orno" to custodian care needs.3. The investigation on the71mentally deficient people under custody ofHarbin Custodian Care and Training Center for Disabled People shows that the mostnumber of mentally deficient people under custody goes to age group16-23,accounting for47.89%. Level I and Level II severely disabled people account for76.06%. Families with monthly income less than CNY500per capita account for26.76%; and33.80%of such families with disabled people receive subsistenceallowances. Mentally deficient people without any education or training account for22.53%. As regards training, all the disabled people under custody of the serviceagencies are willing to take a training course.4. According to the investigation on the394mentally deficient students in allthe six special-education schools in the main urban area, the investigation result ontheir custodian care needs shows that24.87%of them require for daytime care,7.87%of them require custodian care with centralized lodging,9.14%require one toone care, and1.52%require parents’ companion. As regards training needs,30.20%of these disabled people want to have self-help skills training;64.72%of them havesocial adaptive training needs; computer operation ranks first among the vocationalskills training, accounting for31.98%.Conclusions:1. It is ubiquitous that the mentally deficient people have poor self-help abilities,low educational levels, poor employment skills, low family income levels and otherissues.2. The situation of custodian care of mentally deficient people in the main urbanarea of Harbin is not quite optimistic, yet to be solved urgently.3. A complete set of early prevention and screening system of mentallydeficiency should be established, financial investment enlarged, and economicsupport policies for families with disabled people improved. 4. The custodian care system construction should gradually form such a primeframework that takes residential custody care as basis, daytime care as the main body,and agency service as the backbone to provide multi-level, manifold services andmeet diversified needs of the disabled people.

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CLC: > Political, legal > China's political > Social life and social issues > Persons with Disabilities
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