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Elite Capture in the Process of the Distribution of the Poverty Alleviation Resource in Rural Area

Author: XingChengJu
Tutor: LiXiaoYun
School: China Agricultural University
Keywords: elite capture power institution social structure poverty alleviation resource
CLC: F323.8
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2014
Downloads: 27
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The allocation and delivery of pro-poor resource are key factors which has a significant effect on the result of pro-poor policy. In the view of elite capture and the allocation and delivery of poverty alleviation resource,this article focused on power, institutions and social structure which had the complex relationships with the allocation and delivery of poverty alleviation resource in rural community.In the past times, the study on the allocation of poverty alleviation resource, always focus on the Macro-institutional, such as the management, distribution and monitoring system. But what decided the poverty alleviation resources’allocation in rural domain are other factors, such as power, institutional and structural factors within the village community. So in this study, we start the article in the microscopic, which means that we launched the study from the system requirements, power structure and social structure. The elite capture is the process that the elite gains the benefits and resource which were not belong to theirs’, or the village gets the poverty alleviation resources which are not consistent with the poverty situation. In this document, the elite mainly refers to the elite cadre of the villagers,and also refers to village elite who do not hold cadre positions, but has close connection with the village cadres.From the perspective of system, the system that the of local government should raise pro-poor resources, pro-poor work examination system under the pressure system, the twinning helping system between the local government and it’s sector and the poverty village, the tender and bid system of pro-poor engineering construction, the operation system of pro-poor funds by the project mode, unrealistic of system and not reasonable of system, are led to big of system vulnerability of pro-poor management, and these vulnerability providing the space for elite capture. From the perspective of power, the power of social capital, the power of the economic strength, the power of village administration and the villagers’participating in decision-making, all of which means that power has become key factors affecting the allocation of pro-poor resources of in rural area. Higher power status, greater influence, you have access to more resources to reduce the poverty. From the view of structure, changes of the structure of society in the country, the relational structure between village and town government and the structure of the "JIA MEN" or clan in the village, which provided "good" foundation for the emergence of elite capture, and eliminated the concerns of elite capture’actions.Elite capture led to involution of the work of poverty reduction, namely, more and more poverty reduction resources had been invested in, while there were not more population out of poverty which should be proportional to the poverty reduction money, and a large number of resources to help the poor is gained by elite groups, and the justice and fairness of poverty alleviation being tested and challenged. Elite capture also solidified the structure of the interests in the rural community, which presented mainly as the "Association" of elite, as well as loose contacts and interaction between ordinary people and the elite in the villages, and the interaction between elite and ordinary people in the villages emerged a clear social differentiation. Along with the solidified structure of the interests in the rural community, elite capture can also cause poor reproduction; and this reproduction is mainly on the significance of intergenerational transmission of poverty. Elite capture led to the government in loss of legitimacy, and this mainly because of the dissatisfaction from public when the resources captured by elite individuals. Elite capture can also lead to distortion and alienation of the concept of fairness and justice in the rural community, and this is mainly due to poor households doing not follow norms and national policy of the village, and at the same time, they got the support from poverty alleviation resources. In this case, the ethical concepts of fairness and justice would go away and further away from the village, then the main logic is strong and power.The phenomenon of elite capture is shaped by national poverty alleviation resources coming into rural community, the time nature of state power, the action ability of elite in village, the weakness of the control of social structure, and the tolerance and sympathy from villagers to elite capture, besides, the network of feeling, power and interaction in the village together. In the stage of shaping, the state power is a restricting factor for elite capture, and also supply encourages of elite capture; the tolerance and sympathy from villagers is the safe guard for elite capture, and also the motive force and premise; elite seeking their own interests, their dissatisfaction with their own economic and social status, and understanding the logic of local government and national policy, are the direct incentives and motivation of elite capture.Based on the analysis above, the poverty alleviation work on the new stage must face the challenge from the social structure which is disadvantage to the poor, such as information structure, power structure and social interaction structure. Only changing the structural position which is disadvantage to the poor, we can break the "curse"——difficult to the poor to lift themselves out of poverty. To see from this case, the poverty in the new stage can be called structural poverty. Structural poverty means that there are negative regional structures and urban-rural structure to the poor, and also micro-structure and Middle-level structure detrimental to the poor. The poverty alleviation work should break the structure detrimental to the poor, and should protect the structure beneficial to the poor.The implementation of national policy needs to undergo countless power nodes, although State power is very strong, but lost these nodes, the implementation of State policies and the realization of the State will would be very difficult. So, the social foundation and power foundation of implementation of State policies are the focus that we paid much attention to. Only getting strong social foundation and power foundation, the implementation of State policies would have good results. The elite as the bridge which connect the state power and villagers’ will can use the dual nature of State power, a strong side and also a weak side. The elite use the help of state power’s to build them own authority and legitimacy, and at the same time capture benefit and resource because of the weakness and vulnerability of state power. The exercise of state power cannot be divorced from local socio-cultural network, local knowledge systems and social interaction structures, and so the practice of state power is portrayed by State and local governments, elites and villagers’intensive and complex interactions.

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CLC: > Economic > Agricultural economy > China 's agricultural economy > Construction and development of agricultural economy > Agricultural income and distribution
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