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Exporting and Chinese Firm’s Productivity Improvements

Author: HuangPingChuan
Tutor: LiuZhongLi
School: Nankai University
Course: International Trade
Keywords: Exporting Trade Chinese Enterprises Learning by Exporting Productivity Improvement Dynamic Influence Matching Mefhods
CLC: F752.62
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 51
Quote: 0
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Abstract


The relationship between exporting and productivity has become the hot-spot topics in recent years. According to the practice of China’s reform and opening up, though the broad agreement is that exporting improving macroeconomic growth of China and regional economic development, the relationship between exporting and productivity is still a controversial research topic, such as, Chinese export’s expansion mainly relies on lower costs rather than technical advantages (Xu,2010), and even "productivity paradox" appears (Lu et al,2010). Not only that, whether enterprises obtain more productivity gains through exporting compared to non-exporting enterprises, which is, whether learning by exporting effect exists or not? Some scholars in China express great concerns with China’s high export dependence and export’s overwhelming dependence on processing trade due to that the exports scale expansion cannot guarantee promotion gains of the export quality. So, it is especially significant to examine the influence of Chinese enterprises exporting on dynamic changes of productivity.This paper discusses the relationship between enterprises exporting behavior and the dynamic changes of productivity separately from macroscopic and microscopic. Whereby, the macroscopic uses the productivity decomposition method which not only examines the resource of dynamic change difference and drive change in different periods of the export enterprise, but also uses the matching methods to choose the non-export enterprises as the reference samples to examine the learning by exporting effect. The microscopic is the propensity matching methods and the generalized propensity matching methods, on basis of the decomposition method, utilizing samples of the entry enterprises and continuous enterprises separately and independently makes the thorough analysis.Therefore, this article mainly aims at evaluating the effect of learning by exporting of Chinese enterprises, that is, based on a detailed analysis of the microscopic enterprises data, a more accurate appraisal on exporting’s function in China’s microscopic enterprise and the macroscopic economic development could be concluded, and some conductive proposals will be put forward for China export trade’s healthy development in the future. According to empirical analysis of this thesis, such characters as the industry, ownership, production scale, areas and so on will be controlled, thus results of empirical analysis of this thesis can be able to measure the effect of learning by exporting practically.There are seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction, which introduces the background, significance of topics, researching status, esearch thoughts, structure arrangement and innovative points. The second chapter is to comb the theory of mind mechanism of the effect of exporting on enterprise productivity according to two master lines based on the classification and conclusion of the existing relevant theories. Mainly from two aspects of the traditional trade theory and the new-new trade theory. The third chapter utilizes the China’s industrial enterprise data in2008to analyses exporting and the productivity development, in which character of enterprise resource endowments mainly emphasizes the embodiment of the tradition trade theory in China’s export trade. Besides the enterprises productivity difference mainly emphasizes the difference between exporting enterprises and non-exporting enterprises. The fourth chapter utilizes productivity decomposition methods, adopting the China industrial enterprise statistical data from2000to2006, carefully examining effects which generated by the behavior of enterprises entry and exit on dynamic changes of the export productivity. In the fifth chapter the entry enterprises will be chosen as the analysis objects, based on the China industrial enterprise data from1998to2005, using method of difference-in-difference and propensity score matching method to strictly choose the control group sample for analysis. The sixth chapter is to adopt the generalized propensity matching method to make a further analysis on cause-and-effect relationship between the differences of intensity of export and the promotion in productivity directing against the differences of export intensity of continuous export enterprises, based on the preamble decomposition analysis and the empirical analysis. The seventh chapter is conclusions and suggestions.Through the theoretical and empirical analysis, this paper draws the following conclusions. Firstly, productivity of export enterprises obtained distinct enhancement, but the continuous export enterprises in the export enterprises promotion is the biggest, entry is not remarkable. Whereby, the productivity promotion of continuous export enterprises mainly comes from the individual effect, which is, the productivity of the enterprise itself has been enhanced, but reallocation effect is not remarkable. It means factor resources have not concentrated in the industries which enjoy fast growth of productivity as expected, thus it displays the character of scale expansion of the low-efficient enterprises. Secondly, through the generalized propensity estimation it concludes that continuous export behavior indeed has a marked effect on the productivity promotion, moreover this kind of influence also assumes a syllogistic movement, namely the cause-and-effect relationships, between export intensity and productivity changes, manifests fast drop on both sides with the enhancement of export intensity, moreover the middle part remains smooth state. Higher export intensity goes with smaller range of enterprise productivity promotion; its primary cause is that export enterprises are too dependent on export market, especially after controlling the processing trade influence, this kind of causal relation obtains a promotion in high export intensity sector. Thirdly, to a great extent Chinese enterprises’ learning by exporting has been restrained to the export trade pattern, according to the analysis in the sixth chapter, foreign invested enterprise with lower exporting intensity has generated evidently more enhancement on productivity than those with higher export intensity. Even more, FIEs with highest exporting intensity was experiencing obviously the negative effect. The primary cause of this phenomenon lies in the FIEs’ motives to enter into China, namely enterprises mainly aiming at China market can obtain a faster productivity growth, and however, the productivity of FIEs which take China as the world processing plant instead is gradually declining. Fourthly, it is supposed to encourage new entrants to manage export market in the long run. Via the empirical analysis above, learning by exporting effect is evidently higher in continuous than in entrants, analysis in the fifth chapter indicates new export enterprises indeed might obtain certain scale economies effect on the scratch, but this kind of effect may gradually disappear with the formation of scale of production and the development of economic situation, but in the productivity decomposition of the fourth chapter, compared to new entrants in domestic market, entrants may do not have more contribution to the overall productivity. The learning by exporting effect in fact needs a process of certain time, the influencing mechanism of the formation of human capital, market competition and technical spillovers and so on is not what new entrants can be able to utilize, that is, and the new entrants may not obtain benefits in the short time. Therefore, it is significant to encourage entrants to be continuing operating in the exporting market.

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CLC: > Economic > Trade and Economic > States foreign trade > China's foreign trade > Import and Export Trade Overview > Export trade
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