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The Mechanism of International Environment in the Age of Globalization

Author: ZhangDongWei
Tutor: LiuQingCai
School: Jilin University
Course: International political
Keywords: The Age Of Globalization International Mechanism The Mechanism Of International Environment Global Governance
CLC: X321
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2009
Downloads: 89
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Environmental issues in the field of international relations is a relatively new area of research is the focus of a global problem. Since 1972 the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment,environmental issues have emerged the trend of globalization, global environmental governance in various countries has also been widespread concern and attention. More than 30 years, the international community’s efforts, global environmental governance has received great results. However, there is concern that, for various reasons, the global environment is still continuing to deteriorate, in large impact on the sustainable development of mankind, affecting the fate and future of mankind. Environmental issues in international politics is a new topic, enter the Chinese research fields of international politics but also about 10 years, it has a great challenge and uncertainty. In this paper, the theory of international relations from the neo-liberalism as the starting point, the use of international mechanisms of the theory, the system of international environmental mechanisms and to explore how global environmental governance.1、Environmental issues and current situation of the historical periodCivilization in the original period, as a result of low levels of productivity, but to adapt to human nature, the period of the destruction of human beings on the natural environment is extremely limited. Into the agricultural society, to improve productivity, agricultural development and progress of mankind began to settle in life, but slash and burn, the settler population and the increase in population, increased the burden on the environment. Destruction of the environment also makes a number of human civilization has been a devastating blow. Access to industrial civilization, the two waves of the industrial revolution, the productivity of mankind was a great improvement. It is in this period, however, the surge in population, urbanization, natural resources development, as well as large-scale human abuse of the irrational, the increasingly serious environmental problems.After entering the era of globalization, the so-called globalization of environmental issues means that from an ecological point of view, the Earth’s lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and human circle there a comprehensive environmental pollution and ecological damage; from the perspective of international relations of view, after the middle of the last century, with the environmental pollution and ecological damage quickly spread from developed to developing countries around the world are facing serious environmental problems. Any region on Earth, any people, are caused by environmental problems can not escape the negative impact. Although solutions to environmental problems in order to have done a lot of effort, but environmental issues as a result of the complexity and difficulty of the current global environment continues to deteriorate. Humanity must improve and perfect the mechanism of international environment, global environmental governance.2、Theory of international environmental mechanismsIn 1981, Krasner has so far made the most authoritative definition of international mechanisms. International mechanism he defined as "specific issues in international relations, field actors brought together by the desire to express or implied set of principles, norms, rules and decision-making process. Keohane and Krasner put forward different views. in accordance with the definition of international mechanisms, international environmental mechanism is the actors of international relations for the coordination of international environmental relations, the stability of international environmental order to protect the global environment to achieve the purposes and resources to develop or endorse a set of principles, express or implied, norms, rules and decision-making procedures and so on. It is mainly from the main structure, subject areas, the role of channels, in principle, norms, ways to manipulate the composition and operation. international environment characterized by its own mechanism, but also includes the four principles. then on the international environmental effectiveness of the mechanism and its influencing factors.3、Establish a sound mechanism for the international environmentIf it is said that in the current world system of environmental protection in the system memory, then we believe that such a system is imperfect, not the system. A system which people can not provide an effective way to solve the problem, the existing system can only be from a legal or moral norms on people’s behavior, people should be told what to do, but fundamentally to stimulate people’s initiative. Therefore, I discussed four ways to improve mechanisms for the international environment. These four aspects are: the innovation system: out of "The Prisoner’s Dilemma," the internalization of externalities, solve the "free rider" problem, equality and cooperation between developed and developing countries to enhance global awareness and global value.Therefore, I discussed four ways to improve mechanisms for the international environment. First, institutional innovation, and out of "The Prisoner’s Dilemma." First of all, the international environmental protection system for the national dialogue to provide an institutional basis for efforts to reduce the number of trust, poor communication of information caused by the cost and competitive cost. Secondly, the international environmental protection system should be for States to obtain cooperation for environmental protection reasons, the common interests of the development of a series of distribution programs, so that countries can cooperate in the competition more than the yield at which this interest is driven by competition gradually cooperation. Second, the internalization of externalities, solve the "free rider" problem. Use of the knowledge of economics, so that the internalization of externalities, a clear reward and punishment rules cost-sharing, revenue accounting and other measures to "free-rider" is greater than the cost of revenue, such will be able to solve the "free rider" problem. Third, the developed countries to developing countries, cooperation on an equal footing with developed countries in economic and technical support to developing countries and help the environment is mankind’s common problems faced by certain countries is not only a problem, therefore, developed States have an obligation to assist developing countries. Finally, to enhance global awareness and global value. Human there is only one Earth, we must strengthen our sense of protection, from the overall point of view of environmental issues4、The framework of global environmental governance envisagedGlobal environmental governance is a by actors at different levels, strength and movement constitute the complex structure. To participate in the global environmental governance in accordance with the different actors - States, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, civil movement, I think they should be divided into global, regional, the regional type of different levels, and have set up a global environmental governance framework, which can improve the system and the reality of the efficiency of environmental governance. Envisaged in the framework of the global level based on the United Nations as the core, the various relevant international organizations around the United Nations around the close co-operation, co-ordinate their respective policies so that a reasonable allocation of resources to enable more efficient management. At the regional level, the organization called on all localities in the region in dealing with political, economic and other affairs, it is necessary to attach importance to environmental governance, to play the advantages of regional organizations to coordinate the Member States, the development of appropriate environmental management policies and effectively put in place. Regional organizations can also be a stage for international environmental governance to play its due role. At the subregional level, including some non-governmental organizations, relevant organizations and individuals they can not only to regional governance and global governance and the promotion of complementary role, but also can connect the public and the government, they also play an important role, so , we must make good use of their abilities, for the global environment and make due contributions to governance.

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CLC: > Environmental science, safety science > Administration of Environmental Protection > Environmental planning and environmental management > Regional environmental planning and management
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