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The Analysis and Discussion on the Relationship between the "Tao" and "Qi" in the Period of Warring States, Qin and Han Dynasty

Author: NingZhiGang
Tutor: ZengZhenYu
School: Shandong University
Course: History of Ancient China
Keywords: Tao Qi use the Qi to explain the Tao Tao Qi-one
CLC: B21
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2010
Downloads: 155
Quote: 1
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Abstract


The research of the relationship between the "Tao" and "Qi" has always been the focus of academia. As a philosophical concept, the "Qi" was proposed as early as in the end of the West Zhou Dynasty, when there had been "the Qi of the heaven and the earth ", "the six Qi of the heaven" and other titles. It had begun the process of "use the Qi to explain the Tao". Since Lao Zi put forward the "Tao" as a philosophical concept of the origin of the world. Available on the study of the relationship between the "Tao" and "Qi", mostly just confined to a corner or a domain, and not formed a relatively clear clue to the development of the intellectual history. In this paper, I will reveal the logic clue of the relationship and evolution between the "Dao" and "Qi" through the an Pre-Qin and Han culture in the origin of the universe based on previous studies.This article is divided into seven chapters:The first chapter illustrated the Tao Theories of "Lie Zi" and Lao Zi are on the basis of inheritance and had made a further development by exploring the theory of the universe mode in "Lie Zi". And it also integrated the "Tao" and "Qi" by "Taiyi", and made the initial material requirements on the "Tao". To some extent, it overcome the flaws in Tao Theory of Lao Zi.The second chapter mainly discussed the "refined Qi" theory of the "Tao" interpreted by the "Qi" and its limitations in "Guan Zi", "4". It interpreted the "Tao" to be material existence which composed by "refined Qi", so it achieved the effect of the "Tao "and "Qi" to be one. All of these developed the "Tao" from an abstract existence into existence of a substance. It started to break the absolute idea of so-called "regular Tao" can not be spoken, which started the transition from the Tao monism to the Qi monism.The third chapter mainly discussed the inheritance and transformation of "He Guan Zi" to "Tao" theory of Lao Zi and its contribution to China’s Ancient Philosophy. It was the first time to propose clearly the "Yuan Qi" theory in the history of Chinese philosophy, and also introduce the concept of yin and yang contradictions when it used the "Qi" to explain the formation of the specific object changes. It looked the "Qi" as a contradictory mixture which contains two forces of nature Yin and Yang. Compare the previous concept of Yin and Yang gasification, "He Guan Zi" was not only provided with the means to upgrade the Qi as nature of the universe, and because the means of "He Guan Zi "used the two kinds of Qi yin and yang to explain the generation of all things were close to the Qi monism of the Han Dynasty in the time dimension, therefore, it sufficiently to become the transition link from the Qi monism to the monism of Tao.Chapter IV stressed the theory of the "Tao" interpreted by the "Qi" in "Lv Shi Chun Qiu". It is an important change referring to "refined Qi" theory for blended initially "refined Qi" theory and the contradictory concept of yin and yang together. And it made an important foreshadowing to promote the transition from the "refined Qi" theory to the Qi monism, which set up a philosophy bridge from the "Tao" of elusive, mysterious and omnipotent, leading to the physical well-known "all things". And at the same time, it also provided valuable ideas for the later development of the philosophy Qi theoryFifth chapter discussed the Tao Qi-one thought under the command of Nature Theory in "Wen Zi". It summarized the experience and lessons of thinking ways in the past theory of the universe, not only looked the original state of the universe as "Qi" of "a mixed state", and it also had viewed this kind of Qi as the active substance which contained yin and yang, the two forces of nature. It believed that all things and all lives in the world are dependent on the implicit yin and yang contradictions that the universe itself contained to happen and growth. It made a significant development for the theory of the universe of pre-Qin.Chapter VI mainly stressed the theory of universe in "Huai Nan Zi" to express the integration between Tao and Qi and the further development of the Qi theory. "Huai Nan Zi" thought that the "Tao" meant "Qi" and the "Qi" was "Tao" with inspired by the "refined Qi" theory of Ji Xia Taoist and the Qi theory of "Wen Zi". This is not only a beyond to the "refined Qi" theory of Ji Xia, but also a undertaking with the Tao Theory of "Wen Zi". Therefore, the Tao theory of "Huai Nan Zi" can be said to be the integration of the Tao theory, Qi theory and the yin yang concept of pre-Qin.Chapter VII discussed the "Tao root Qi to" ideology in "Qian Fu Lun" of Wang Fu. Mainly because of the version differences of "Qian Fu Lun" which caused different understandings on the philosophy of Wang Fu. From this, we explored the Tao Qi thinking of Wang Fu, and the philosophical history meaning of its "Tao root Qi to" idea.

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