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Research on the Scalar Timing Model of Short Durations

Author: LiuRuiGuang
Tutor: HuangXiTing
School: Southwest China Normal
Course: Basic Psychology
Keywords: source of information the scalar timing model attention activation interruption expecting of a break the weber’s function the transational point
CLC: B842.1
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2005
Downloads: 150
Quote: 1
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Past studies of temporal information processing limited to extreme short durations(shorter than 5s), and the dual-task programs were used by most researchers. Experiments were conducted with acoustic stimulus and lexical materials presented. Although the construct nature of temporal information processing was emphasized in some past studies, the source of information and the kinetic processes of temporal information processing were not analysed systematicly, these topics remain open questions in time field. Based on the summarizes and investigations about past theories and studies, we selectly use the prospective paradigm and creatively use the single-task program in this research. Experiments are conducted with geometric stimulus presented in visual mode, and the analysis of variance are made on data from this research. By taking perspectives of psychophysics, we use six experiments to explore the source of information, the transational point, and the Weber’s function in the timing process of humans. The basic process of the scalar timing model are also constructed in this research.Experiment1 shows: The motion status (kinetic or static) of stimulus significantly affect temporal judgments of subjects. Compared with static experimental conditions, the effect of the kinetic stimulus are more significant because of more changes including in them. As a factor, physical duration is also an important cue influencing subjects’ duration estimation.Experiment2 shows: The rotating angle of stimulus significantly affect subjects’ time judgments, and the decrease of which make subjects underestimate duration. With the increase of the rotating angle, the value and the accuracy of time judgments are increased.Experiments shows: Physical duration of stimulus shows a significant duration-longthened effect. The speed of stimulus is an important factor used by subjects in estimation of short duration, fast-moving stimulus can increase value of duration estimation. There is a significant interaction between the duration and the speed, the effect of rotating of stimulus and other two-order or three-order interactions in this experiment are not significant. The combination of the results of experiment 1 > experiment and experiments imply that the weber’s function is a continuous function with break points,. Transational points of the weber’s function are 12s > 18s and 21s, which are the same as the critical point of 11.1s of duration estimation discovered in this research in some extent.Experiment4 shows: The break positions of stimulus significantly affect subjects’ time judgments, in the two conditions of 2s and 8s, all subjects overestimate duration, and their time sensitivity increase with the longth of the break position. The break duration is not an important cue used by subjects in time judgments. There is no significant interaction between the break position and the break duration(interruption interval).Experiment5 shows: The effect of the break position is significant. A V-shaped function can describe the relationship between duration production and the break position. Besides that, significant effect of activation and interaction between activation and the break duration are discovered in this experiment, through the further simple effect analysis, we know that subjects’ timing behavior are extremely affected by activation in all three conditions of 2s > 3s and 4s. Temporal judgments of subjects are not relate to the break duration. No other significant interaction is discovered in this experiment.Experiment6 shows: The same as the results of experiment4 and experiments, there is a significant effect of break position. In condition of 5s waiting duration, the value of subjects’ response variance is the largest, the value of time estimation is the smallest, and the activation level is the highest at the same time. In trails without breaks, subjects’ response variance is the smallest, the value of time estimation is the largest. The cue factor nested in these conditions shows a significant experimental effect. Subjects produce the larger value of duration estimation in the uncued conditions of trails without breaks than in the cued conditions of trails without breaks. Becouse no cues are presented in trails with breaks, subjects have gained a high expecting-level of a break in uncued conditions of trails withoutbreaks and a relative low expecting- level of a break in cued conditions of trails without breaks. The fact that subjects produce a shorter value of duration estimation in cued conditions of trails without breaks reflects that expecting of a break can longthen the time estimation. Break duration is not a factor influencing subjects’ time judgments, and the combined effect of break duration and the break position is not discovered in this experiment.Synthesizing the results of six experiments of this research and inspecting the source of information affecting processing of temporal information, we know that The information source of temporal judgment not only include physical factors and physiological factors, but also include cognitive factors and other psychological factors. The motion n the change n the speed of stimulus and the internal tempo of subjects, which belong to the physical factors and the physiological factors, significantly affect subjects’ temporal judgments. Activation^ attention preceded cues ^ a break in timing task and the expecting of a break of subjects affect their internal timing system, so significant effects are discovered on temporal estimation behavior of humans.We construct the scalar model on the basis of past studies and this research, which include four kinetic processes such as the clock process n the accumulating process % the memory process and the comparison process. In the level of clock-process and the accumulating process, we know that humans’ temporal processing rely on a "pacemaker-accumulator" system, it is also called the "clock-accounter" system. The absence of the interaction between the break position and the break duration imply that subjects’ timing behavior is not affected by break duration. The kinetic processes of temporal information processing are controlled by a "switch", by which the temporal information processing flow from one level to the next level. In trails with breaks, the absence of the interaction between the break position (waiting duration) and the activation level show that activation and attention affect different parts of information processing of humans. The two control different cognitive process apparatus—the rate of the pacemaker and the opening of the switch, The pulses produced by the pacemaker, which have some frequencies, are accumulated in the accumulator through the switch. It is the accumulated pulses that form the basis of time cognition of humans. Attention is often interrupted by a

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