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The Coordination of Interest Relation in Market Penetration

Author: ZhaoDingDong
Tutor: SongBaoAn
School: Jilin University
Course: Sociology
Keywords: Interest in coordination Social transformation mode China and Russia China's experience
CLC: C914
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2007
Downloads: 491
Quote: 0
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Abstract


Compared with the spontaneous market economy in western countries, other transformational countries such as China and Russia have more complicated conditions. These countries don’t directly change from natural economy into market economy; they change into planned economy instead. They build a fixed relational structure of interests by national compulsory force. Since1980s, these countries have reformed one after another. They set up new political and economy systems that fit for their countries. They readjust their structures of interests. Due to the grave adjustment of interests relationships and the rigidity of interests, people as economic men in different strata and groups are pursuing their own maximum interests. As a result, the interests polarization is becoming more serious. Under this background, putting the analysis of the coordination mechanism of interests relation in transformational countries in the frame of comparative studies on modes of transformation makes for revealing the internal structure of social integration. In the second step, the author summarizes the characteristics of social transformation into series of non-temporal and non-regional types from a special angel. According to these types, the author tries to tell the differences and mutual relationships among social transformational modes, and then the author explores the more universal things from the differences.Comparative method is the main research method. Its main idea is to discover and to study the same points and differences of nature and characteristics between comparative objects, then to seek the causes. There are three steps in operation. The first step is a deep case study on progressive pattern and mutational pattern. In other words, first treat the comparative objects as independent individuals, analyze the background and conditions that the modes of transformation based on concretely and historically, and then form a mode of temporality and region when we know exactly the basic historical conditions and the internal and external affecting factors in the process of a mode’s emergence, development and decline. Compare it with the same kind of phenomena in another mode of transformation on time diversity, spatial relations and spatial obstructs. According to this, we can completely grasp the basic meaning of this mode and the characteristics of history and reality. This is an empirical method based on phenomena. In the second step, the author summarizes the characteristics of social transformation into series of non-temporal and non-regional types from a special angel. According to these types, the author tries to tell the differences and mutual relationships among social transformational modes, and then the author explores the more universal things from the differences. In the third step, the author pursues the meaning of comparison. Comparison doesn’t mean to accumulate phenomena; it means to sum up and theorize“Chinese experiences”, that is to say, find a new road for Chinese advancing development from the experiences and lessons of Russian social transformation,The keywords of this article are the coordination of interests relation,system transformation,social transformation,changes of relationship between state and society and the mode of social transformation.This article has seven chapters and a conclusion. Its logical structure and brief discussions are as follows:Chapter 1 is introduction. It contains four parts: reasons for choosing this topic, theories for research, practical significance and research methods. It is mainly about the basic introductions of the topic and some concepts. In this article, it is nearly 30 years since the transformation of the pre-planned economic countries, the whole structure of social life has changed, market economy and market consciousness has affected every aspect of the state and society, the traditional public interests are changing, at the same time, the relationship between state-owned interests and individual interests is obviously different. Seeing from the different developmental histories of market economy in different countries, there are many social turbulences in the process, which lasted from the emergence of interest-driven in traditional economic relations to the establishment of new economic relations, such as the conflicts of moral principles, the repeated returns of traditional system and so on. Even when the basic political and economy system was built up, there were also many repeated destroys caused by economic and social crisis, after this, we built a socialization system of coordination and readjustment for interests relations, at last, we formed a entire structure of interests relations in modern society. We need the studies on both constructing the mechanism of the benefit expressing, benefit balancing, benefit safeguarding and their functional significances very much, especially in China.Chapter 2 is a theoretical review of social transformation mode; it is a macroscopic review of theories. In this chapter, the author mainly discusses the studies on the coordination of interests relationships and social transformational modes. This chapter contains four parts. The first part mainly analyzes the topic and the predicament of the modern theories. In this article, the western academic circle divides modernization into two branches named pre-modern self-fulfilling social transformation mode and post-modern exogenous social transformation mode. On the level of theory, there are four period in the process of analyzing and theorizing the two modes in western educational circles: they are the period of classic theories, the period of empirical research, the period of theoretical alternation and the silver age of theories. The second part mainly analyzes the basic standpoint and limit of the development theories. In this article, dependency theory makes up the limit and one-sidedness of viewing only from the internal society in modern theories, it has its mind on the inequalities between pre-modern self-fulfilling countries and post-modern exogenous countries and provides a new angle of view for mode research on social transformation, and“center- border area" relationship is a mainly analytical frame. Although this kind of analytical frame criticizes the dichotomy of“tradition- modern" in modern theories, it sinks into a simple logic named“flourishing- not flourishing" and "center-border area”. At the same time, although it negates the internal cause determinism in modern theories, it sinks into the external cause determinism in politics and economy; World system theory makes up the limit that the modern theories only pays attention to the study of one country, it also overcomes the carelessness that dependency theory simply divides the world into two parts, but its visual field is only the system of the capitalism world, as a result it has internal defects. Common point of these theories is that they analyze modes of social transformation in the market economic countries, and these theories are lack of the concerns about the mode of social transformation in planned economic countries, especially the neglect of variations in social logic caused by the change from planned economic mechanism to Market economic mechanism since 1980s. In the third part, the author mainly analyzes and summaries the research results of social transformation theories. The author thinks that social transformation theories of all countries are based on pain introspections of social reality and historical culture. They all have their special features, but a common problem is that it can’t satisfy all countries, and it doesn’t give an accurate answer to the future-developing trend and transforming project of all countries, so it’s not a mature theory. It also reflects the essential difficulties of social transformation in every country; the key point is that they can’t carry out the coordination of interests relation in transforming process. The fourth part mainly introduces the topic of the research on modes of social transformation, the coordination of interests relation. In this article, there are differences among modern theories, development theories and social transformation theories in the main purpose and research methods, but the common topic of these theories is the coordination of interests relation, that is to say,the coordination and integration of social interests relation are the essences of the studies on modes of social transformation.Chapter 3 is the breakthrough of the system transformation and the structure of interest relation. This chapter contains four parts, named market transformation theories and interest integration, the concerns of the western academic circles and“participation of interest”, the starting point and the characteristics of Chinese system transformation and interest disintegration, the basic point of system transformation in Russia, the formation of abrupt mode and progressive mode. In this chapter, the author emphasizes the different coordination mechanism of interest relation and the original characteristics of social transformation that based on different starting points, different backgrounds and different trace in China and Russia. The starting points of the transformation are different in China and Russia, although the original interest relation structures are alike. In China, the progressive mode makes the interests shared by everyone; In Russia, the interests are separated.Chapter 4 is about the great changes of social structure and the reconstruction of interest relation. This chapter contains five parts , named the overview of the social structure theory research in west educational Academic circles, the reconstruction of interest relation in Chinese society under the background of market penetration and differentiation of social strata: stratum cataclysm and the malfunction of coordination mechanism of Russia interests relations, changes of occupational structure in Russia since the 1980 and the comparison with Chinese,Guiding principle of interest relation harmonization and "relief valve" etc. In this paper, the author thinks that the relation between social structure and structure of interests relation contain three aspects: first, the transformational courses of social structure and current situation can scan the values and effects of institutional reforms of the two countries, that is to say, social structure is an architectural performance of interest relation structure; second, the key point of the disintegration and integration of social structure lies in establishing coordination mechanism of social interest relation. In fact, analysis on social structure is to analyze coordination mechanism of social interests relation, in this sense, the interests relation of society becomes the essence connotation of social structure; Third,social structure and interests relation structure become the basic elements in analyzing the different way of assigning social resources and social chances in China and Russia during the market-oriented transformation. Generally, coordination mechanisms of the interests relation in market penetration process in China display the diversification trends .The opportunity, wisdom, dignity, network etc. among them become the key factors, this is the reason that China can keeps the social order relatively stable in the process of social revolution, though the obvious polarization between the rich and the poor has appeared; Russia is different, whose social orders have suffered enormous impingements. The main viewpoint in this part is: the reason of the different way in social structure revolution of China and Russia lies in the differences of coordination mechanisms of interests relation, which also lead to the different degrees of the social integration. The progressive mode in China is much better than the abrupt mode in Russia.Chapter 5 is about“state and society”: the coordination mechanism of interests relations in transformation. It can be divided into three parts, that is, the research theory, impacts and responses on the relationship between state and society in western academic circles, the adjustments of the relationship between state and society and the interpretive view on coordination mechanism of interests relations. In this part, the relations between state and society and the correlations of interest relation structure are the most important part in analyzing the mode of transform in both China and Russia. If we say that the correlations between system transformation and the structure of interests relation are the starting point, the correlations between social transformation and the structure of interest relation are the pillar, the correlations between the structure of interest relation and the state and society relationships are the enhancements and conclusions. It is because changes in relations between state and society are firstly shown on the changes in relations between national interests, group interests and individual interests, and it not only contains value tropism, but also reflects the internal basis of social transformation, it is a synthesis of social operating logic, social system and so on. The main viewpoint in this part is: market-oriented transform involves not only assigning new interests, but also the problem of interests transforming that has already been socialized, the former demands to admit the structure of assigning interests based on the background of marketplace, the latter relies on the adjustment and corrections of the socialization that beyond the marketplace. The paths of different changes in relations between state and society are reflected by the different social transformational modes in China and Russia, and this also explains the differences in social operational mechanisms. Chapter 6 is the redistribution of social resources: comparisons on social welfare policies between China and Russia. In this chapter, there are three parts: the history and basis of Chinese modern welfare policies, the transformation and essence of Russian social welfare policies, the coordination of interests relationship and the roads of social redistribution. In this section, the author thinks that the traditional social security system in China has been breakthrough. New social security system that fit to market economy has not been fully established. In fact, there are many leaks in Chinese social security net. The leaks in system and policies have resulted in appearance of new poor people. In another aspect, the social transformation in China doesn’t give up strengthening the traditional foundation on helping social inferior groups. In this sense, it is a reason that Chinese social security system keeps its relative balance. In Russian social security system, social responsibility takes the place of state responsibility. Seeing from the present operational conditions in Russia, its social security system fits to its market economy. Social legal responsibility, duty and right are explicit. The internal operating system is formed. It is different from China that social members in Russia rely on social security system very much and all kinds of supervision systems have played effective effects. The author thinks that no matter which system they use, the results are the most important. In this sense, both China and Russia have adopted the wise choices that fit to their own conditions, however, China may have more difficult tasks in the future.Chapter 7 is about the academic significances of the comparative study between China and Russia. There are two parts in this chapter, the basis for the emergence of“abrupt mode”in Russia and the social logics of“progressive mode”in China. In this article, the abrupt mode in Russia is a dynamic process. It is due to the disorders of interest relations that caused by the special tradition of history, social foundation and the publication of interest transferring. It appears as a discontinuous regime in forms because of the rapid transformation, a social disintegration resulted from social transformation and an obvious evidence of conflicts resulted from the changes of relationship between state and society. In essence, it is a true description of the discontinuous trace on distraction between westernizing path and oriental system. The explicit feature is logic of“development after transformation”. In China, logic of transformation is system integration under the balance of interests, and it is a normal exhibition of strong state-strong society mode. Relative fairness and absolute efficiency not only promote the social transformation, but also achieve the relative stability and smooth transition of the society.The conclusion is about the academic value of the coordination of interest and Chinese experiences. Compared with“Latin America mode”,“East Asia mode”and the developing trace of other market economic countries in the western world, China and Russia are different. To some extend, they have no comparability. China and Russia have different modes named Beijing Consensus and Washington Consensus, although the starting point of their transformations is the same. It is due to their different paths and different guiding principles. Seeing from the results, the transformational performances are obviously different, and this affords a practical foundation to the academic value of“Chinese experiences”. The macro-appearance of“Chinese experiences”contains four aspects: a universal certification on interests intentions, an abandon of universal theories and a flexible system innovation, an emphasis on the organic integration of history and reality and a synchrony between the integration and disintegration of interests.In conclusion, in this article, the comparative studies on modes of social transformation contain many areas such as politics, economy, and culture and so on. Maybe the scale is too grand, and even some aspects can’t be grasped. But in this article, the author uses the structure of interest relation as an entering point, and analyzes the correlations between system transformation and the structure of interests relation, social transformation and the structure of interests relation, the structure of interests relation and the relationship between state and society. According to this, we can avoid the grand aspects and make the logic and structure compact.

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