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The Studies about the Influence Effect of the Multinational Corporations R&D in China

Author: LiJun
Tutor: JinRunGui
School: East China Normal University
Course: World economy
Keywords: multinational corporations R&D effect technological innovation local enterprises China
CLC: F273.1
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 1025
Quote: 2
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Abstract


Since the 1970s, with the increasingly fierce international competition and the development of economic integration in the world, more and more multinational companies moved their R&D activities from their home country to overseas. Particularly since the late 1980s, that the multinational corporations are engaged in international R&D activities has become increasingly common, and the overseas R&D investment of multinational corporations has increased year by year. Since the 1990s, the overseas R&D appears a new trend that the intensity of investment in developing countries has increased. Among them, with its huge market capacity and abundant and low cost and high quality human resources, China becomes the hot zone for R&D investment of multinational corporations.Chinese national innovation system is conducting a comprehensive reform, and China takes a positive attitude to take part in the economic globalization. In this process, it is particularly important that how to upgrade effectively the innovative ability of the local enterprises because they are the main body of a national innovation system and in direct competition with multinational corporations. Against such a backdrop, it becomes necessary that R&D of multinational corporations in China is evaluated correctly and the feasibility study is provided for Chinese local enterprises using the R&D of multinational company to upgrade their innovative ability. Based on this, the research theme of this paper is the impact of multinational corporations’ R&D in China on China’s local enterprises’ technological innovation, and from the theoretical and empirical perspective this paper studies deeply the effect mechanism, the means, the impact factors and the impact effects of spillover effect and crowding-out effect for multination company’s R&D, and on this basis policy is analyzed. This paper is divided into seven chapters, which are as follows:Chapter 1 is the introduction of this paper, presenting the background and significance of the topic, the research content and the research methods, and so on.Chapter 2 is the Review, introducing separately the theory of multination corporations’ overseas R&D investment and the theory of enterprise technical innovation. On this basis, from the perspective of technological innovation of developing host country, the research result of the impact of the R&D of multination corporations on host country is described. In the end of the chapter, the paper points out the research perspective and focus: from the perspective of the R&D of multinational corporations to China’s local enterprises’ technical innovation, focusing on the theoretical research and empirical analysis of mechanisms and result of influence effect.As the key parts of this article, chapter 3 to the chapter 6 study the technological innovation influence effect of the R&D of the multinational corporation in China to Chinese local enterprises from the theory and the empirical angle.Chapter 3 and chapter 4 are the part of theory research. Chapter 3 analyses the mechanism of spillover effect and crowding-out effect of the R&D of multinational corporations in China. First analyses the processes, the mode and the impact effect of the companies’ technology innovation, based on this the mechanism of spillover effect and crowding-out effect of the R&D investment of multinational corporations in China is studied. It is pointed out that spillover effect or crowding-out effect of the R&D investment of multinational corporations is produced by impacting the positive or negative effects on technological innovation elements of local enterprises.On the basis of chapter 3, chapter 4 discusses deciding factors of effect degree of spillover and crowding-out effect of R&D of multinational corporations through Game model based on the product innovation and R&D innovation.Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 are Empirical Analysis. Firstly the chapter 5 is measurement Analysis. On the basis of the research on mechanism and analysis of Game this paper builds measurement analysis model, and certificates the influence effect which the R&D of multinational corporations puts on technology innovative of China’s local enterprises.Limited to the enterprise data in quantitative analysis, chapter 6 selects four local enterprises from the communications equipment manufacturing industry and household appliances industries in Chinese high-tech industry to conduct case studies, the goal of which is to corroborate and add up to the conclusions of measurement analysis, and to perfect the contents of the empirical analysis.Chapter 7 puts forward to policy recommendations to bring spillover effect into play and to reduce crowding-out effect of R&D of multination company on the basis of summarization of the main viewpoint in this paper. Finally this paper points out the innovation and the weaknesses of paper, and on this basis, puts out further research directions.Main conclusions of this study are:1、There are spillover effect and crowding-out effect on the technological innovation of Chinese local enterprises from the multinational corporations’ R&D in China, and these two effects coexist in the same time and in opposite directions. They finally ultimate impact on local enterprises’ technological innovation through exerting influence on the innovative elements of the technology, including innovative macro-environment, innovation dynamic, innovative support systems, innovator, as well as the innovation process.2、Spillover effect plays a role in similar channel with crowding-out effect of multinational corporations R&D. In particular, spillover effect emerges through the demonstration and the imitation, the flow of talent, the competition and the communication, and the crowding-out effect arises through excessive competition, the weakening association effect, fighting for the R&D resources, increasing technological dependence. These channels can be summed up as "demonstration and connection", "the flow of talent" and "competition" Spillover effect and crowding-out effect play a role in these three ways at the same time, but in the opposite direction.3、Whether the net effect of multinational corporations’ R&D on local enterprises’ technological innovation is negative or positive depends on the size of spillover effect and crowding-out effect, which are results of the Game of technological innovation between multination corporations and local enterprises. In the process of the Game, the absorption capacity and the technology gap of the local enterprises are key factors that affect the result of the Game. The greater the absorption capacity and the smaller the technology gap, the greater the spillover effects, on the contrary, the greater the crowding-out effects.4、Empirical analysis shows that in Chinese high-tech industries, the improvement of their own R&D expenses and the increase in R&D team are the most important to promote the technical innovation. Overall, the spillover effect of the multination corporations’ R&D on local companies technology innovation is greater, but the "competition" means plays the main role, and the effect of "the demonstration and connection" and "the flow of talent" are not significant.5、The absorption capacity and the technological gap of the local enterprises will affect the spillover effect, among which the greater the absorption capacity of the local enterprises and the smaller the technology gap with foreign company, the better the spillover effect, on the contrary the worse spillover effect. Through Empirical Analysis, we know that in high-tech industry, the absorptive capacity of the local enterprises need to be further increased, further narrowing the technology gap in order to increase R&D spillover effect.

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