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Studies on Key Techniques for Scale Plantation of Kapok

Author: GaoZhu
Tutor: MaHuanCheng
School: Southwest Forestry University
Course: Forest cultivation
Keywords: Kapok plantation Variation Cutting Photosynthetic Cultivation
CLC: S792.99
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2012
Downloads: 13
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Kapok fiber is the finest, lightest, most warm material of natural fiber,which has fine features as smooth, antibacterial, and gentle. The2-40S air spinning,40-80S-blended yarn technology has been used to high-end textile products. Bombax ceiba,Bombax insigne, and Ceiba pentandra have high yield of fiber, and well growth in Dry-hotValley. It has significance to restoring the ecological environment, preventing soil erosionand rocky desertification remediation which are planted. It is also beneficial to rawmaterial of cotton spinning and income revenue for the farmers. There is no domesticlarge-scale cultivation, and no intensive cultivation techniques to use. Planting techniqueshas become the bottleneck in the development of Kapok industry. To carry out Kapokcultivation techniques research, the result is good for establishing the theoreticalfoundation of high standard cultivation of Kapok fiber, and providing technical referencefor afforestation technology of plantation in Dry-hot Vally.In this study, the Kapok distribution germplasm resources of Yunnan province wascollected, and the Ceiba pentandra had been collected into25kinds, the Bombaxceiba had been collected into34populations, all of these seeds were conductedgermination trail. Since2009, the research had been carried out three years and56haforest had been cultivated. The cutting propagation technology was researched. Theafforestation technology, density provenance trail and fertilizer experiment also had beencarried out in the study. The main results are summarized below.1. Results of germplasm resources and seed variation of Kapok: According to theclustering of fruit or seed traits, the Ceiba pentandra is divided into four populations, andthe Bombax ceiba is divided into eight populations.The distribution of Bombax ceiba isnearly2°longitude,1°latitude wider than Ceiba pentandra. Xishuangbanna has theearliest fruit mature, City of ChuXiong, Lijiang, Dali are the latest. The fruit length can beused as one of the breeding index of yielding higher fiber cultivars. Fiber production in thesouthwest is higher than in the northeast, the fiber production of PBH1, BZX2, BBH1arehigher than other provenances. There are abundant genetic vatiations in different groups ofKapok seeds, the coefficient of vatiation of seed is10.45%-28.85%. The seeds produncedin north are rounder than in south, and in east are circler than in west, in northeast seeds arelighter than in sounthwest. The coefficient of variation of seed germination character ofdifferent groups is53.20%to93.32%. The bigger of seed, the germination rate is higher,the seedling is more uniformity. The seed germination rate is no significant effect on seedweight. The greater the proportion, the seedling survival rate is higher. 2. Results of Photosynthetic physiological: Kapok is belongs to typicalheliosciophyte. The photosynthetic ability of Ceiba pentandra is higher than Bombax ceiba.Leaf net photosynthetic rate has weak correlation with environmental factors, and thecorrelation of air relative humidity is highest.3. Results of asexual reproduction: The adventitious root formation of Kapok goesthrough three distinct phases, i.e. the callus induction phase (0-7d), the root primordialformation phase (7-14d), and the elongation phase of adventitious roots. The hormonetype and concentration, tree age, cutting length, cutting thick degree, and branch period arethe main influence factors of Kapok rooting cutting, but incision, number of leaf, altitudeare not significant effect. It’s can obtain rooting rate over80%of Ceiba pentandra withtree age1a,1.5to2.5cm thick degree, the upper branches period,20to30cm length,with150mg·L-1ABT1soak1h. With5.56articles are the largest number of rooting, andcuttings in perlite. The root length with4.65cm is the longest cutting root in sand of allmatrixs. The max matrixs with perlite: peat (1:1), perlite: peat: sand (1:1:1), perlite, andsand are the best matrix with high rooting rate. The enzyme of SOD, POD and CAT haveeffectively reduced free radicals and stress of oxidation function in adversity of rootingprogress, there are the important protecte enzymes in the process of Kapok cutting. Theenzyme of IAAO and PPO play important role in promoting rooting, there are theimportant relationship enzymes in the process of Kapok cutting rooting.By grafting, the Kapok can flower in one year. Grafting has no significant impact ongrafting survival rate, but bangding tenchnology is one of the key factors of survival. Thehighest graft survival rate time is in summer, the lowest graft survival rate is in autumn, thesquid has no significant effect in graft survival rate. The Ceiba pentandra with the highestgraft survival rate, and grafted seedling have fastest grow. The different Kapok with higheraffinity can be used as stock for each other.4. Results of cultivation tenchniques: After3times fertilization, the fertilizationcombination are3.67and5.94times than control in seedling height and diameter,2.27times in dry matter content, and the value of chlorophyll CCI, PSⅡlight energyconversion efficiency, stomatal conductance are significantly heigher than control, sofertilizing can effectively improve the quality of seedling. The best combination is0.5gper plant urea+1.0g per plant calcium superphosphate+0.5g per plant potassiumchloride or0.5g per plant urea+2.0g per plant calcium superphosphate+1.0g per plantplant potassium chloride. The absorbent agent dosage from0to60g, Kapok forestation shows rise-down trend. The advisable absorbent agent of Kapok afforestation in Dry-hotVally is20to40g. It’s caused the average of plantation survival rate fell by6.92%or morewith fertilizers, with basal fertilizers in afforestation is bad for plantation survival rate. Ithas significant on tree growth by P fertilizer, but with better growth on diameter and crownby N fertilizer. It is better increment in branches by K fertilizer than P fertilizer and Nfertilizer in1year old trees, but P fertilizer with better effect than K, N fertilizer inbranches of2year trees. It can be used combinations with100g per plant N+100g perplant P+100g per plant K or200g per plant N+100g per plant P+150g per plant K,and can be used with400g per plant strain or300g per plant urea in1to2years forest.The Bombax ceiba tree high growth has two peaks in3ages, but tree diameter with onlyone peak. Ceiba pentandra has a single-peak curve in quarter height increment, and risetrend in diameter increment. The leaf area index appeared of3-years old forest is3.26times than2-years,3-years old forest is more stability than2a. Density has negativecorrelation with tree height, and has positively correlation with tree diameter. The treeheight growth from1to6years old fitting equation is y=0.586x1.763, diameter degress isy=0.998x-1. The provenances of PBH1, BBH1, and LSH1are with rapid growing.Summary, the Kapok have abundant genetic vatiation, which is related to thegeographical environment, but not with geographical distribution consecutive or nearby.Appropriate hormone type and concentration, cutting quality and cutting medium canachieve high quality cuttings factory nurture. The different Kapok with good affinity,grafted seedling can flower in one year. Appropriate source, scientific cultivation anddensity, combination of fertilization and photosynthesic control technology, the high-yielding cultivation can be achieved.

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