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Feng Qi and the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy

Author: LiuMingShi
Tutor: WangXinYan
School: Wuhan University
Course: The philosophy of Marxism
Keywords: Feng Qi Wisdom Theory the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy Transforming Theory into method Transforming Theory into Virtue
CLC: B27
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2011
Downloads: 159
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Abstract


Feng Qi’s Wisdom Theory, which has absorbed the essence of Marxist philosophy, Chinese philosophy and Western philosophy, is a system of Chinese Marxist philosophy with its own character, and leaves a brilliant page in the chapter of the history of the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy. How to evaluate the theoretical contributions to the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy comprehensively and objectively is an important issue of the study on Marxist philosophy in contemporary China. The main aim of my paper is to accomplish this task with best efforts.Feng Qi’s philosophical road, in his own words, is "to advance along the road of Practical Materialism Dialectics".Feng Qi met an important philosophical issue which was the relationship between knowledge and wisdom in1930s. This question was the philosophical reflection of times theme of "Whither China", and it constituted the theoretical entrance in which Feng Qi advanced the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy. Feng Qi was deeply influenced by Tsinghua School especially by Jin Yuelin, but he was influenced by Mao Zedong more deeply, so he chose Practical Materialism Dialectic as his theoretical tools to answer the question of the relationship between knowledge and wisdom through his consistent life. Conducting a systematic review and the overall reflection of the development process of the Chinese traditional philosophy (including ancient philosophy and modern philosophy) on the height of materialist dialectics, Feng Qi made a full preparation for his Wisdom Theory. Feng Qi constructed his theoretical system of Wisdom Theory in the early1990s. This system consists of three components:"To Understand the World and Understand Their Own" is the trunk,"Dialectics of Logical Thinking" and "Human Freedom and "Truth, Goodness, Beauty" is wings. This system has its own strict internal logic, and it is with distinct nature of Marxist philosophy.Feng Qi’s Wisdom Theory is consisted of three chapters. The first chapter is "To Understand the World and Understand Their Own", which explains the basic issues of his broad-sense epistemology. Feng Qi summed up the main problems of epistemology in four aspects:whether feeling can give objective reality? Whether theoretical thinking can grasp the laws of universally valid knowledge? Whether logical thinking can grasp specific truth? How to train ideal personality? In Feng Qi’s opinion, Practical experience can give us a sense of reality about the object, and "Given is the show of objectiveness". It can be said that practical experience is the basis of knowledge and wisdom. Theoretical thinking is to facsimile and specified the experience, and it is to treat the reality with what the reality give us. This is called accepted general principle, which constitutes the condition of universally valid knowledge together with formal logic. In the thinking movement of "consistence and different consideration", logical thinking grasps the truth through specific concrete concept. Logical thinking grasps the Heaven is a process in which primordial world evolves to facts world, possibility world and value world, and touches upon the problem of mind and humanity when it grasps the Human. Wisdom is about Heaven and Human, and is inherently linked with freedom. People can realize the leap from knowledge to wisdom through rational intuition, dialectical synthesis, virtue’s self-evidence. The second chapter is "Dialectics of Logical Thinking", which explains how the dialectics of thinking process is transformed into the general principles of methodology. In Feng Qi’s opinion, dialectical logic is the growing point of Marxist philosophy, so we must pay more attention to it from studying Marxism and learning the knowledge of human knowing history and contemporary science with the specific means of "co-identified" and "character test." The contradiction between views and perspectives constitutes the beginning of dialectical logic. Dialectical logic advances itself from spontaneity to self-conscious in the process of the development of science and philosophy. This is the dialectics of the logical thinking process. Formal logic has its objective basis. Dialectical logic grasps the specific truth with specific concept. Unity of opposites is the fundamental law of dialectical thinking. Logical thinking’main areas are "class","reason","truth". General logic method mainly includes five links such as the observation of objectivity (from reality), the combination of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and analogy, logical method and historical method, assumption and demonstration, the combination of assumption and evidence and theory and practice. This is the dialectics of logic thinking form.The third chapter is "Human Freedom and Truth, Goodness, Beauty", which explains how the dialectics of thinking process runs through the value area and is transformed into the virtue of human free personality. In Feng Qi’s opinion, human freedom is "to treat the reality with what the reality give us", and is "to transform the thing in itself into a thing for me", and is to go from the realm of necessity into the realm of freedom. In short, for freedom is the essence of man. This essence is inevitably reflected in the value area. Value is the subject to evaluation. The core issue of culture philosophy is value. Truth, Goodness, Beauty and utilitarian value constitute a unified value system, and as the value category, Truth is associated with life idea, Goodness is linked to moral idea, Beauty is associated with aesthetic idea. Man not only creates culture but also develops ideal freedom personality. Today we should promote a kind of personality which is called plebeian-oriented free personality, and train it with the combination of practice and education, of culture of world view and intellectual, moral, aesthetic education, of collective help and individual effort. The whole history of mankind is the history to the realm of freedom.Feng Qi has made a unique contribution to the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy, which is of important significance theoretically and practically. Firstly, Feng Qi applies the basic theory of Marxist philosophy to the development process of Chinese traditional philosophy and makes a systematic reflection of how to promote the modernization of Chinese traditional philosophy. He has not only summed up the positive results of Chinese traditional philosophy from the view of epistemology, logic, concept of Heaven, concept of humanitarian, methodology and other aspects,but also critically cleaned up the negative factors from the point of values, methodology, logic and other aspects, and proposed a new definition of philosophy history and some methodological principles to promote the modernization of traditional Chinese philosophy such as comparison, reformation, keeping-abandoning. Secondly, Feng Qi has made a new attempt on the logical system of Chinese Marxist philosophy under the guidance of Practice Materialist Dialectics. In the history of Marxist philosophy, some philosophers,such as Lee Da, Ai Siqi, Zhang Dainian, Mao Zedong and so on, have made great achievements.It is on the base of these achievements that Feng Qi has made a new successful essay. Today, to continue to innovate on Marxist philosophy, we should advance along the road of Practical Materialism Dialectics with a conscious national consciousness and a forever free mind as Feng Qi. Thirdly, Feng Qi has enriched and developed the basic principles of Marxist philosophy in many ways, giving times and national identity to Marxist philosophy.On Marxist epistemology, Feng Qi has not only expanded the field of study, but also reinforced the practical basis of materialism, and enriched the Marxist truth theory, and enriched the scope of category system. On Marxist logic, Feng Qi has not only stressed that dialectical logic is the growing point of Marxist philosophy,but also made a scientific distinction between formal logic and dialectical logic, and presented system of logical categories including "class","reason","truth" with rich ethnic characteristics. On Marxist culture philosophy, Feng Qi has not only made a deep Marxism interpretation on the meaning of culture and the core of culture philosophy, but also put forward the concept that we should first of all carry on Chinese "modern traditional" at the level of "ancient and modern", and proposed a perforating mechanism of Chinese culture and western culture at the level of "Chinese and western". On Marxist freedom theory, Feng Qi has not only made a deep exposition on the thought of Marxist classical writers’ freedom theories, but also made a systematic study on the freedom theory of Chinese traditional philosophy, and put forward innovative ideas on freedom’s nature, process, and the realm. On Marxism ideal theory, Feng Qi has not only proposed a broad concept of idea but also made a deep investigation on life idea, moral ideal and aesthetic idea. On the theory of human nature of Marxist philosophy, Feng Qi has not only raised that human class nature is " for freedom" from the point of facts world, but also illustrated human social nature from the view of possibility world, and combined human nature and human virtue. On Marxist personality theory, Feng Qi has put forward a new concept of plebeian-oriented free personality and the effective way to train it. Finally, Feng Qi makes a deep reflection on the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy. Feng Qi considers the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy as a concrete and historical process, and he summarizes not only Mao Zedong’s contribution but also some professional philosophers’ contribution to the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy, and he regards the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy as the beginning of world philosophy. All these have provided us with useful insights to further reflect and advance the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy in today’s era of globalization.

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