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The Study of the Measure on the Tourism Industrialization Level

Author: HuangZuo
Tutor: DengHongBing
School: China University of Geosciences
Course: Resource industries and economic
Keywords: Tourism industry Industrialization level Input-output Metrology model Hubei province
CLC: F592
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 396
Quote: 0
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With the rapid development of the tourism worldwide, the role of tourism in promoting employment, stimulating economic is becoming even more significant. The development on tourism is an important symbol of a national and regional modernization, opening and the internationalization. Governments at all levels begin to divert attention to actively play a function of tourism industry on driving others, and vigorously promote the level of tourism industrialization, which means tourism has been not only an activity carried out by the individual for a pursuit of pleasure and also not an undertaking, but an industry with a market competitive nature, and associating and driving a large number of industries.Although the tourism has been really an industry in reality there, but the concept and scope of which have not be solved in theory. The nature of the tourism industry is not clearly known, which brings about a difficulty to evaluate the socio-economic contribution and clear the status of tourism industry in the national economy. The measure of the industrialization level of tourism is an issue that yet to be resolved in theory but very important in the practical application. In this paper, the measure of the tourism industrialization level needs to solve two problems. First, on the basis of collating and summarizing the basic concepts, define the concept and scope of the tourism industry, clear the contents included in it. Second, under the premise of the established basic scope, starting from the connotation and characteristics of industrialization, the paper proposes methods and models to measure the industrialization level of tourism, and using of the model and the method in empirical research of Hubei Province. Research on these two issues will play a crucial role in the development of tourism industry and government to develop policy.This paper firstly summarizes the research progress and theoretical basis of the measure of the tourism industrialization level. The tourism industry is a concept formed of an integration of tourism and industry. It is a new format formed by primary to senior evolution in a state of continuous development of tourism activities. The word "tourism" is not innately, it is a product of social productive forces to a certain stage. Early travel is only an activity of a few persons for entertainment, recreation and games. Therefore, travel is seen as a social phenomenon and an activity for tourists. Tourism is different, which is an industry that provides products and services for tourists. With the popularity of tourism activities, the tourism is becoming an industry which involves multi-level, multi-domain from that only constituted by the travel agency. Academia has not reach an agreement about the nature of tourism industry, and the reason is that tourism industry determined by the concept and the characteristics of tourism activity is different from the general industry. The traditional definition of the travel and tourism is from the perspective of demand, while the industry is defined from the perspective of supply, meaning that an industry can be constituted as long as the enterprises produce the same or similar products. It is easy to determine the boundaries of an estate. For the tourism industry, those enterprises, from the point of view of supply, who procuce tourism products also procuce non-tourism products, in other words, those enterprises provide products and services for tourists and also for non-tourists. It is difficult to determine whether these enterprises are tourism enterprises. The boundary of the tourism industry is difficult to determine as well. Therefore, from this point of view, the tourism industry is not the strict sense of the concept of industry. By discriminating the concept of travel and tourism, this paper proposed tourism can still be an industry, because, in accordance with the definition of the traditional industries, the tourism industry also provides tourist products just that such a product is a combined product that produced by travel agencies, scenic, hotels and other enterprises. The production process of tourism product is different from the traditional industries, but this can not deny that tourism is a industry. Tourism industry has input and output function, and the input-output relates to many industries, tourism industry has closely associated with the other industries. Therefore, tourism is an industry. But tourism is not the same as in the tourism industry. As defined in the Tourism Satellite Account, tourism is from the perspective of demand, is all that directly related to tourism consumption. Tourism industry is from the perspective of supply, only including those enterprises closely related to tourism activities, regardless of whether these provided products are all tourism products. From this point of view, the tourism industry more in line with the connotation of the traditional industries. Recognition of tourism as an industry, then it can not be denied the significance of tourism industry development. The tourism industrialization means a type of effective integration that various sectors of the tourism industry to achieve, and means that a model of high related, a high degree of synergy will be formed. It seems that the advantages of the department’s resources, environment and management strengths will change into industrial advantages, so as to enhance the size and competitiveness of the tourism industry as a whole. The tourism industrialization level is not only associated with the level of the tourism industry as a whole, but also related with the structure and the scale of the industry. To elaborate the association of demand and supply within tourism industry and technical economic ties between tourism industry and other industries of the national economy, this paper also discussed the industry association theory and the demand and supply theory. The industry association is the technical economic ties of national economic sectors directly and indirectly interdependence and mutual restraint in the process of social reproduction, which is an important content to reflect the industrialization level of tourism. The tourism industry association analysis is to use a quantitative method to analyze the interaction between supply and demand in the tourism industry and the upstream and downstream industries, providng a reference for formulating industrial policies and establishing the direction of industrial development. The important tool of industry association analysis is the input-output tables. Using input-output tables can clearly measured the value of one industry to be consumed in the production process of other industries, it can also be used to measure the value at other industries that to be consumed in the industry. For the industry association analysis relating to the impact between demand and supply of internal departments of tourism industry as well as the tourism industry and other industries, therefore, it is necessary to sort out the theory of tourism demand and tourism supply. Tourism demand is reflected in the various aspects of tourists demand to travel product. Tourism supply is the supplied products directly for tourists, and can be classified of basic tourism supply and auxiliary tourism supply. When measuring the industrialization level of the tourism industry, the indicators which are applied to reflect the tourists’demand is tourism consumption indicators, and the indicators which are applied to reflect the tourists’supply are output. The measure of the industrialization level of tourism industry can not only conform the the characteristics of the industry itself but also be comparable with other industries in the national economy, only if it considers both supply and demand.The key is the choice of the method for measure of the tourism industrialization level, which determines the authenticity of the results directly, while the measure of the industrialization level of tourism industry is still in the exploratory stage. The process of industrialization is dynamic and mutative, with features of comprehensive and complexity. Industrialization level reflects the level of industrial development stage, the sophistication and the level of intensive. Therefore, based on the connotation and characteristics of tourism industrialization, chapter four major proposed a model and method of the measure of the tourism industrialization level, which includes three aspects. First, the author proposes a method to define the tourism industry. According to the file Tourism Satellite Account Recommended Methodological Framework, the scope of the tourism industry is classified in accordance with the interrelated degree to tourism activities, while it is difficult to distinguish the degree, meaning that the criteria for the classification in Tourism Satellite Account is conceptual. Therefore, the boundary between specific and non-tourism specific industries, also characteristic and tourism-related industries are not clear in the Tourism Satellite Account. Based on this, this paper proposed a technical classification of tourism industry by using the indicator of the proportion of tourism demand on supply. Propose a defined standard between specific and non-tourism specific industries, and also characteristic and tourism-related industries, and further give a classification of tourism characteristic industries, puting forward the concept and scope of tourism core industries and tourism infrastructure industries. Second, propose model and methods to measure the contribution to the national economy of the sectors within the tourism industry, which is an important aspect to measure the tourism industrialization level, using of input-output and multiplier analysis method to measure the contribution of the sectors within tourism industry to the national economy, not only can reflect the scale level of the internal sectors of the tourism industry, but can also reflect the degree of optimization level, as well as the association impact of tourism industry to other industries in the national economy. Again, propose model and methods to measure the contribution to the national economy of the tourism industry as a whole, which should reflect the level of the size and effectiveness of the overall development of the tourism industry. Using of cointegration model in the econometrics theory to measure the long-run equilibrium relationship between the tourism industry and the national economy can reflect the impacts of the tourism industry on the national economy for a long period, which is a dynamic and long-term performance. Therefore, the model and method in this chapter is based on two aspects, the one hand, to reflect the size levels, benefit levels, associate degree, structure degree of optimization of the internal sectors, as well as the correlation and driven level between the industry by measuring the contribution of the sectors within tourism industry to the national economy, on the other hand, to reflect the scale of the tourism industry as a whole by measuring the contribution of the tourism industry as a whole to the national economy in the long term. The result of the tourism industrialization level is integrated by the above method and model.Based on the proposal of the tourism industry definition and the model and method of the tourism industrialization level, the Chapter five take Hubei Province for example, and take an empirical study of the measure of the tourism industrialization level in Hubei Province. On the basis of the input-output tables in Hubei Province, the tourism income shall be deemed to output in Hubei’s statistics. According to the earlier definition of the tourism industry, the tourism industry in Hubei Province is defined and including the16departments of the eight categories. The eight major categories respectively are long-distance transport services (including railways, highways, waterways and air), accommodation services, catering services, scenic tours, travel agents, entertainment services, shopping and the city’s transportation. Travel agencies and scenic tours are the core sectors of the tourism industry, because these two departments are survival and developing completely dependent on tourism activities. By measuring the tourism industrialization level in Hubei Province with the input—output and multiplier analysis methods, the author finds that tourism industrialization the Hubei is at a low level, mainly in those aspects, for example, the contribution is low of the sectors in the tourism industry to the national economy, it is uncoordinated in the sectors, industrial structure needs to be optimized, and overall level of the tourism industry is not high, the long-term role in promoting the regional economy is not obvious. Therefore, the mode of development in Hubei Province should be further improved from extensive to intensive, the rational allocation of resources should be promoted, and the structure of the tourism industry should be adjusted toward a upgrading and rational direction, and thus improve department productivity.The tourism industrialization level plays a key role in the government’s tourism-related policies to develop tourism industry, and has an impact on the future tourism industry development. Therefore, it is necessary to put forward suggestions for some of the problems existing. Based on the empirical research of measuring of tourism industrialization level in Hubei Province, Chapter six puts forward the tourism statistics protecting system and tourism-related policies and countermeasures for enhancing the tourism industrialization level from the point of of the national level. There are certain defects in the current system of China’s tourism statistics, mainly in these aspects, for example, tourism-related concepts are not clearly defined, a single means of investigation and the small sample size, advanced statistical techniques and analytical methods lack, tourism survey is not linked up by the Tourism Satellite Account convergence international authority recognized by the international authority recognized Tourism Satellite Account. Therefore, in order to raise the overall quality of tourism statistics, to ensure the authenticity of the accounting content, there should be a comprehensive reform of the system. The concept of tourism statistics system should be further classified, the tourism statistical indicators system and tourism statistics survey methodology should be improved. By the measure of the tourism industrialization level in Hubei Province, the author find that the factors affecting the tourism industrialization level is mainly manifested in two aspects of the internal and external, the scale of the internal organization and the overall level of the tourism industry development and association to other industries. The former determines the efficiency of resource use, specialization, and the degree of intensification of the tourism industry, the latter determines the scale of the tourism industry. Therefore, to raise the tourism industrialization level should focus on improving the overall level of the tourism industry, and optimize the organizational structure by promoting the coordination of the tourism industry structure, improve concentration of industrial structure, and promote the sophistication of tourism industrial structure.Based on the summary of the content and the basic viewpoints of the full paper, the author puts forward some shortcomings of the article and prospected for future research in chapter seven. Because of the imperfect of the tourism consumption data in our system of tourism statistics, and the tourism output data lack, which affected the results to define and measure the tourism industrialization level. Another deficiency of this study is that there is not a regional comparison with Hubei Province in the measure of tourism industrialization level, therefore, the result reflects only an absolute level in Hubei Province not the relative level. In future research, this paper will further improve and deepen in the following three aspects. First, further deepen and perfect the theory and methodology, analyze in-depth of the theory of whether tourism can constitute a industry, further improve the application of the method; Second, to further expand the theoretical research, from the point of view of the industrial organization, discuss in-depth and detailedly the impact mechanism between the sectors in tourism industry and the space-time evolution of the industrial structure; Third, to further develop different regional comparative studies, combine of econometrics to give a comparative analysis of the different regions of the tourism industrialization level, and in turn propose the spatial difference and targeted suggestions of the tourism industrialization level.

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