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On the establishment of the United States Congress bicameral

Author: XuYanBo
Tutor: ZhangDingHe
School: Shandong Normal University
Course: World History
Keywords: U.S. Congress Bicameral Establish
CLC: K712
Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2004
Downloads: 410
Quote: 1
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Abstract


U.S. Congress bicameral profound political and cultural heritage based in the specific historical conditions established in order to meet the objective needs. The bicameral Congress from the colonial to the state of parliamentary practice designed to provide a wealth of experience, formed a reliable political atmosphere. Political union Confederation Congress from the Continental Congress to promote the growth of nationalism, gives Congress the power to become possible. After a fierce debate in the Constituent Assembly in 1787, the Congress bicameral final after the approval of the Constitution can be achieved. The initial development of the United States Congress bicameral benefited from the long bicameral traditional in the UK. The British Parliament is the \Puritan Revolution in the 17th century and further confirms the reasonableness of the bicameral, made a model for the development of the colonial parliament. Therefore, the British North American colonies from the start the establishment of a Parliamentary standing on a higher starting point. Virginia Parliament held from 1619 to the outbreak of the 1774 war of independence more than 100 years, the colonial parliament from the transplant, imitate their home countries bicameral mode to the progressive development of a relatively mature and has its own unique. North American society in Britain has its own particularity, the three elements in the mixed form of government in the British colonies only civilians factors fully reflect the monarchy, the nobility factors imposed by the mother country, in North America and survival of the soil. Thus, although the vast majority of colonial formal British-style bicameral, but its essence is bound to be increasingly at odds with the British. Strong civilian force to promote as the representatives of the lower house of parliament gradually became the political life of the protagonist, as the upper house counselor will not play a balancing role theoretically expected. The turmoil of the revolutionary era test of the parliamentary system of the state. War in the harsh environment, the change of the political system are somewhat extreme, chief administrative officer of excessive weaken the role of the Senate is not a more consistent view of the House of Representatives can be obtained by virtue of their existing status of great powers, the formation of \The too weak executive powers and would not achieve the restraining effect of the Senate can not prevent the House of mayonnaise four legislative chaos serious situation. Become increasingly apparent with the the revolutionary passion gradually faded and the House of Representatives autocratic drawbacks, the theory of mixed government in the United Kingdom about the essence of checks and balances has been a renewed emphasis on the states in varying degrees to enhance the powers of the Senate, both houses of balanced reform. Continental Congress and subsequent Confederation Congress limited role in the revolutionary era of the state as the main political arena, no substantive government building. The Continental Congress is required for emergency provisional institutions, there is no legal basis; Confederation Congress itself is a difficult birth, a birth in such trouble. With the intensification of internal conflicts and interstate relations in some states, foreign relations crisis, the empowerment of confederation also put on the agenda. After the war and the temper of the confederation period, more and more people have begun to break free from the narrow local interests, and vision to the entire continent-wide benefits, willing to see themselves as the United States. British oppression has passed, the revolution to strongly defend the rights of the people - is in fact the right of the state legislature - has proven to be not as expected can not require a general authority can be maintained, establish an effective national The government's conditions are ripe. In the Constituent Assembly, to learn the thirteen states a hospital and both houses of the rich practice experience and lessons learned, the Virginia program proposed by the representative of the largest state advocate Congress on behalf of the people and both houses of bicameral. Representatives of small states against the New Jersey program, repair, established a unicameral Congress within the framework of the Confederation Congress to grant greater powers to solve the immediate problem. Meeting the majority of deputies in favor of the former against the latter: the confederation system in any case can no longer continue the national government must be able to represent the people in the exercise of the power, directly on every citizen; still everything to resort to state governments, that in any event to strengthen the powers of the Confederation Congress, will not help. In the case of proportional representation can not stop the House of Representatives, the states' rights to send to the Senate to implement the principle of equality confederation of states voting rights to make concessions for their own bottom line, refused retracted. Fruitless in order not to make the meeting, the representative of the large states had to accept the request of the representative of the small states. In this way, the final result of a compromise of the Constituent Assembly bicameral Congress House of Representatives seats to be allocated in proportion to the population, including the elements of nationalism; Senate allocation of seats among the states, regardless of size equal, reflecting the principle of federalism. The House of Representatives has priority on fiscal issues, the Senate appointments and external relations issues privileged, both houses of the basic balance of power. Constitution approved the establishment of the bicameral Congress in April 1759. Both houses of Congress on behalf of the people and state, although nationalists expect to have a considerable gap, but that is their great victory: the House of Representatives directly attributable to the people, to overcome the biggest flaw of confederation; Senate can be approximated as State Government of the Federal agency, but their number is small, long-term, fixed salary expectations theory of the bicameral second homes by the Treasury expenses, and a series of other characteristics. The plight of the Confederacy, the growth of nationalism led to the proportional representative of the House of Representatives, the the bicameral practice in most states Senate power is weak due to corruption in Pennsylvania unicameral generated serious consequences prompted the Constituent Assembly, whether the Senate composition, should be greatly enhanced its powers . In short, the U.S. Congress bicameral built on a solid foundation from the colonial to the state long-term parliamentary practice, and also meet the federal objective reality, so it can function effectively in the established long-term, until today.

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CLC: > History, geography > History of America, > North America > United States
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