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Physiology and Biochemical Responses of the Cotton Bollworm to Ultrasound and Molecular Basis for Its Auditory System

Author: ChaYuPing
Tutor: LeiChaoLiang;ChenQiCai
School: Huazhong Agricultural University
Course: Zoology
Keywords: Bollworm Reproduction Acetylcholinesterase Antioxidase Nanchung gene Inactive genes
CLC: S435.622
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2008
Downloads: 81
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Abstract


Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H (u Shu ¨) ber), belonging to Noctuidae (Noctuidae), is our country and the world's important agricultural pests. Because of its wide host range, reproductive potential of large populations can be long-range transport and environmental adaptability and other characteristics, conditions suitable for large-scale outbreaks often inundated, causing a variety of economic crop losses. Like other bollworm moth has a hearing, located on the rear sides of the chest, and the optimum tuning frequency range is 15-30 kHz. When the cotton bollworm adult fly can be issued when clocked at 20-40 kHz range of ultrasonic pulses. For a detailed understanding of the mechanism of hearing bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera provide auditory aspects of governance related theoretical basis and foundation. This paper studies the cotton bollworm non-ultrasonic bat physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as the molecular basis of ultrasonic detection of H. armigera. The main results are as follows: 1. Ultrasonic bollworm reproduction and growth and development, whether with or without ultrasonic irradiation bollworm adult female spawning the first four days the number is increasing, and then a few days fecundity gradually decreased. Exposed to ultrasonic irradiation of bollworm female oviposition concentrated in the first three days begin spawning to 6 days in the control group bollworm adult female than the former peak spawning extended by one day. Ultrasonic irradiation bollworm adult female fecundity than control of, and the difference reached a significant level. Bollworm adult female test group than in the control group spawning increased 54.5%. Bollworm control group of female adults eggs hatching rate was 61.5%, while the test group was 67.6%, no significant difference between the two. Test group with 1.43 fine female moths package, more than the control group to 1.28. Exposed to ultrasonic irradiation growth of the larvae and larvae growth of the control group had no significant difference. The larvae pupate test group rate is lower than in the control group, 77.7% of the former, while the latter was 92.2% between the two reached a significant level of difference. Exposed to ultrasonic irradiation of pupae rate is lower than without ultrasonic irradiation eclosion rate, but no significant difference level. Two ultrasonic bollworm acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity under the influence of prolonged exposure to ultrasound, bollworm AChE activity abnormally elevated. For 12 h test group AChE activity bollworm largest growth reached a significant level of activity in the control group was 2.61 times. Followed for 6 h test group bollworm AChE activity increased, reached a significant level of activity than the control group increased by 149%. The longest processing time 24 h test group bollworm AChE activity growth is very small, compared with the control group increased by only 16%. Ultrasonic stimulation test in a short time, the ultrasonic bollworm adult AChE activity was significant. Bollworm female adults exposed to ultrasound at 20 min, AChE activity maximum, compared with the control group increased by 74% to reach a statistically significant level. Other test groups AChE activity did not change significantly, AChE activity in the control group only 86% -103% change. Adults with different effects on the cotton bollworm is ultrasonic bollworm pupae mainly plays AChE activity inhibition; when at 30 min bollworm pupae AChE activity reached a minimum of 0.085 U / mg prot, the control group 56 %, the difference is remarkable. Second, in 50 min, the cotton bollworm pupae AChE activity was 0.0947 U / mg prot, 63% of the control group, the difference was significant. When the ultrasonic treatment bollworm larvae reached 20 min, there was a significant inhibition, AChE activity was only 0.018 U / mg prot, the activity of the control group 15%. However, in 40 min and 60 min, ultrasonic and exciting bollworm larvae AChE activity was significantly increased, respectively, 0.285 U / mg prot and 0.2553 U / mg prot, activity of the control group was 2.3 times and 2.1 times. 3 ultrasound on antioxidant enzyme activity in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera when prolonged exposure to ultrasonic irradiation, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity no significant change. Prolonged exposure to ultrasonic irradiation, the cotton bollworm female adults catalase (CAT) activity reached a significant level. When the cotton bollworm adult female by the ultrasonic irradiation at 6 h CAT activity increased significantly in the control group was 2.2 times. Ultrasonic irradiation bollworm adult females 12 h also makes a significant increase in CAT activity than the control group increased by 38.5%. After 24 h of ultrasonic irradiation, CAT activity bollworm adult female but began to decline and reached a statistically significant difference in the level. Prolonged exposure to ultrasonic irradiation, bollworm peroxidase (POD) activity has also undergone a significant change. Ultrasonic irradiation for 6 h, bollworm POD activity increased significantly, 124.3% for the control group. Bollworm after ultrasonic irradiation 12 h, POD activity increased in comparison with the control group, although the growth rate of less than 6 h ultrasonic irradiation, but still reached a very significant difference level. After ultrasonic irradiation for 24 h, CAT activity bollworm POD activity changes with the same, but started to decline, but did not reach a statistically significant level of difference. When short-term exposure to ultrasonic irradiation, cotton bollworm adults, pupae and larvae of H. armigera pupae of SOD and CAT and POD activities were no short-term change significantly. When the cotton bollworm adult female short-term exposure to ultrasonic irradiation, the POD activity reached a significant level of difference. In ultrasonic irradiation 20 min and 40 min, the cotton bollworm adult female POD activity reached the peak, where 40 min bollworm adult female POD activity when compared with control group reached a very significant difference. Short ultrasonic irradiation for bollworm larvae POD activity has a very significant impact. In addition to 10 min and 60 min is slightly higher than the other treatments so that the length of time of the ultrasonic irradiation bollworm larvae POD activity was significantly enhanced. 4 bollworm Nanchung (Nan) length cDNA Cloning and sequence analysis by RT-PCR and RACE methods to get Nan from bollworm full length cDNA sequences. The sequence protein coding region 1020 bp. The protein sequence deduced from the sequence is 339 amino acid residues. Using the DNAStar software analysis, suggesting that the molecular weight of proteins 39.191 kDa, an isoelectric point of 6.76. A hydrophobic amino acid sequence analysis shows a hydrophilic amino acid sequence. For protein secondary structure prediction, the results show that the secondary structure of the protein is mainly α-helical structure. The following analysis of the use of biological software DNAStar evolutionary relationships between invertebrates and found: bollworm and silkworm genetic distance, followed by Hymenoptera Italian bees and pupae Calliphoridae set Nasonia, Tribolium castaneum Coleoptera, Diptera purpose of Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, and finally the outgroup Caenorhabditis elegans. 5 bollworm Inactive (Iav) Partial cDNA cloning and sequence analysis by RT-PCR and RACE methods obtained from the cotton bollworm Iav Partial cDNA sequences. The sequence protein coding region 1209 bp. The protein sequence deduced from the sequence is 402 amino acid residues. Using the DNAStar software analysis, suggesting that the molecular weight of proteins 45.132 kDa, an isoelectric point of 6.65. A hydrophobic amino acid sequence analysis, mean hydrophobicity -1.75, indicating a hydrophilic amino acid sequence. For protein secondary structure prediction, the results show that the secondary structure of the protein is mainly α-helical structure. The following analysis of the use of biological software DNAStar evolutionary relationships between invertebrates and found similar with Nan phylogenetic: bollworm and silkworm genetic distance, followed by the bees, followed by mosquitoes and flies, and finally the outgroup nematode.

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CLC: > Agricultural Sciences > Plant Protection > Pest and Disease Control > Crop pests and diseases and their prevention > Economic crop pests and diseases > Fiber crop pests and diseases > Cotton pests and diseases > Insect pest
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