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Genotypic Variability in Sequences and Expression of LEA2/LEA3 Genes in Tibetan Hulless Barley, Hordeum Vulgare ssp. Vulgare, Associated with Resistance to Water Deficit

Author: QianGang
Tutor: YuZuoQun
School: Chengdu Institute of Biology
Course: Botany
Keywords: Water loss rate Relative water content Malondialdehyde Of free proline Tibet highland barley HVA1 gene Dhn6 gene Sequence analysis Rate of water loss changes Dehydrin gene
CLC: S512.3
Type: PhD thesis
Year: 2007
Downloads: 508
Quote: 1
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Abstract


Drought resistance was a complex trait which involved multiple physiological and biochemical mechanisms and regulation of numerous genes. Because its complex traits, it is difficult to understand the mechanisms of drought resistance in plants. Plants respond to water stress through multiple physiological mechanisms at the cellular, tissue, and whole-plant levels. Tibetan hulless barley, a pure line, is a selfing annual plant that has predominantly penetrated into the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and remains stable populations there. The wide ecological range of Tibetan hulless barley differs in water availability, temperature, soil type and vegetation, which makes it possess a high potential of adaptive diversity to abiotic stresses. This adaptive genetic diversity indicates that the potential of Tibetan hulless barley serves as a good source for drought resistance alleles for breeding purposes.12 contrasting drought-tolerant genotypes were selected to measure relative water content (RWC), maldondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content, based on values of water loss rate (WLR) and repeated drought methods from Tibetan populations of cultivated hulless barley. As a result of the screening, sensitive and tolerant genotypes were identified to clarify relationships between characteristics of LEA2/LEA3 genes sequences and expression and drought-tolerant genotypes, associated with resistance to water deficit. In addition, dynamics water loss rate (DWLR) was measured to observe the changes on diffrential drought-tolerant genotypes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was applied to detect relative expression levels of Dhn6, Dhn11, Dhn13 and HVA1 genes in sensitive and tolerant genotypes with 2 h, 4 h, 8h and 12 h of dehydration. In the present study, differential sequences and expression of LEA2/LEA3 genes were explored in Tibetan hulless barley, associated with phenotypically diverse drought-tolerant genotypes.1. The assessments of WLR and RWC were considered as an alternative measure of plant water statues reflecting the metabolic activity in plants, and the parameters of MDA and proline contents were usually consistent with the resistance to water stress. The values of detached leaf WLR of the tested genotypes were highly variable among 84 genotypes, ranging from 0.086 to 0.205 g/h.g DW. The 12 most contrasting genotypes (6 genotypes with the lowest values of WLR and 6 genotypes with the highest values of WLR) were further validated by measuring RWC, MDA and free-proline contents, which were well watered and dehydrated for 12 h. Results of RWC indicated that the values of 12 contrasting genotypes RWC ranged from 89.94% to 93.38% under condition of well water, without significant differences, but 6 genotypes with lower WLR had higher RWC suffered from 12 h dehydration. The results indicated that lower MDA contents, lower scores of WLR and higher proline contents were associated with drought-tolerant genotypes in hulless barley. Remarkably, proline amounts were increased more notable in 6 tolerant genotypes than 6 sensitive genotypes after excised leaves were dehydrated for 12 h, with control to slight changes under condition of well water. Results of MDA contents showed that six 6 tolerant genotypes had lower MDA contents than the 6 sensitive genotypes under both stressed and non-stressed conditions. As a result of that screening, drought-resistant genotypes (Ximala 10 and Pinbi 14) and drought-sensitive genotypes (Dongqing 8 and QB 24) were chosen for comparing the differential characteristics of LEA2/LEA3 genes and their expression analysis. It was conclusion that measurements of WLR could be considered an alternative index as screening of drought-tolerant genotypes in crops.2. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were thought to protect against water stress in plants. To explore the relationships between configuration of LEA proteins and phenotypically diverse drought-tolerant genotypes, sequences of LEA genes and their deduced proteins were compared in Tibetan hulless barley. Results of comparing Dhn6 gene in Ximala 10 and QB24 indicated that absence of 63bp was found, except that only 5 mutant nucleotides were found. While 22 mutant sites were taken place in Dhn6 gene between sensitive and tolerant lines, 14 synonymous mutation sites appeared in the contrasting genotypes. The additional/absent polypeptide of 21 polar amino acid residues was not consistent with phenotypically drought-tolerant genotypes in hulless barley. It was deduced that synonymous mutation sites would play important roles in holding out right configurations and functions on DHN6 protein. The sequencing analysis results indicated that each cloned HVA1 gene from four selected genotypes contained an entire open reading frame. The whole sequence of HVA1 gene from Dongqing 8, QB24, Pinbi 14 and Ximala 10 was respectively 661bp, 697bp, 694bp and 691bp. Results of DNA sequence analyses showed that the differences in nucleotides of HVA1 gene in sensitive genotypes were not consistent with that of tolerant genotypes, except for absence of 33 nucleotides from +154 to +186 (numbering from ATG) in QB24. Database searches using deduced amino acid sequences showed a high homology in LEA3 proteins in the selected genotypes. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that LEA3 protein from Dongqing 8 was composed of 8 repeats of an 11 amino acid motif, less the fourth motif than Pinbi 14, Ximala 10 and QB24. Consistent mutant amino acid residues appeared in contrasting genotypes by aligning and comparing the coding sequence region, including Gln32, Arg33 and Ala195 in tolerant genotypes as compared to Asp32, Glu33 and Thr195 (Thr184 in Dongqing 8) in sensitive lines. It was concluded that consistent appearance of Gln32, Arg33 and Ala195 would contributed to functions of LEA3 protein in crops, as well as higher proportion of 11-amino-repeating motifs and polar amino acid residues.3. Most of the LEA genes are up-regulated by dehydration, salinity, or low temperature, are also induced by application of exogenous ABA, which increases in concentration in plants under various stress conditions and acts as a mobile stress signal. Higher levels of proteins of LEA group 3 accumulated was correlated well with high level of desiccation tolerance in severely dehydrated plant seedlings. Dehydrins (DHNs), members of LEA2 protein, are an immunologically distinct protein family, and Dhn genes expression is associated with plant response to dehydration. Dynamic water loss rate was measured between sensitive genotypes and tolerant genotypes after they were dehydrated for 2 h, 4 h, 6h and 8 h. Detailed measurements of WLR at the early stage of dehydration (2, 4, 6, and 8 h) showed that WLR was stabilizing after 8 h, and there were no significant changes between these values and WLR after 24 h. Drought stress was applied to 10-day-old seedlings by draining the solution from the container for defined dehydration periods. Leaf tissues of the selected genotypes were harvested from control plants (time 0); and after 2,4, 8, and 12 h of dehydration. Differential expression trends of Dhn6, Dhn11, Dhn13 and HVA1 genes were detected in phenotypically diverse drought-tolerant hulless barleys, related to different time of dehydration. Results of quantitative real-time PCR indicated that relative level of HVA1 expression was always higher in tolerant genotypes, rapidly increasing at the earlier stages (after 2-4 h of dehydration). However, HVA1 expressions of sensitive genotypes had a fast increase from 8 h to 12 h of stress. Significant differences in expression trends of dehydrin genes between tolerant genotypes and sensitive lines were detected, mainly in Dhn6 and Dhnl3 gene, depending on the duration of the dehydration stress. The relative expression levels of Dhn6 gene were significantly higher in tolerant genotypes after 8 h dehydration, by control with notable higher expression levels after 12 h water stress in sensitive ones. The relative expression levels of Dhn13 gene tended to ascend during exposure to dehydration in drought-sensitive genotypes. However, fluctuate trends of Dhn13 expression level were detected in drought-resistant lines, including in lower expression levels of 12 h dehydration as compared to 8 h water stress. It was conclusion that (1) diverse LEA proteins would play variable roles in resisting water stress in plants; (2) expression of Dhn11 gene was not induced by dehydrated signals because of the trends of expression descended in contrasting genotypes suffered from water deficit and (3) variable accumulations on LEA proteins would be appear in diverse drought-tolerant genotypes during dehydrations. It is deduced that higher accumulations of Dhn6 and Dhn13 expression in 8 h dehydration are related to diverse drought-tolerant lines in crops. The present results indicated that different dehydrin genes would play variable functional roles in resisting water stress when plants were suffered from water deficit. The authors suggest physiologically different reactions between resistant and sensitive genotypes may be the results of differential expression of drought-resistant genes and related signal genes in plants. In addition, contrarily induced expression of Dhn11 and Dhn12 was related to dehydration responsive element (DRE) in barleys.The present study indicated that (1) measurements of WLR and RWC could be considered as one index of drought-tolerant screenings; (2) synonymous mutation sites would play important roles in holding out right configurations and functions on DHN6 protein, (3) higher proportion of 11-amino-repeating motifs and polar amino acid residues would contribute to functions on LEA3 protein, (4) the longer drought, the more accumulation on LEA proteins, except for Dhn11 gene in crops and (5) differential responses on expression of LEA protein genes would result in physiological traits of drought tolerance in plants.

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