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Research on Paul S.Reinsch and American Loans to China during the Early Republic of China (1914——1919年)

Author: DaiJuan
Tutor: ZhaoZhiHui
School: Zhejiang Normal University
Course: World History
Keywords: Paul S. Reinsch American loans to China foreign debt Sino-American relations
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Type: Master's thesis
Year: 2013
Downloads: 16
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Abstract


From November1913to September1919, Paul S. Reinsch served as the first U.S. envoy in the Republic of China, he put the "dollar diplomacy" as an important means to open the gateway to China, and expanded U.S. economic interests in China as his highest mission. Reinsch argued that the United States of American carries out economic activity independently, he also did not exclude cooperation with the powers unless cooperation condition is to get equal value in return from other powers.Reinsch believed that the development of the United States can not be separated from China. He made a careful study of the modern imperialism, considered that the United States can cooperate with other industrial countries in looking for overseas output for surplus products capital. The open door, as a long-term basic policy, can eliminate the early advantage of the European powers, so as to get a fair share of the market for American in less developed countries. He said that China also needs funds, modern technology, the idea of freedom and democracy as well as powers’ commitment for his territorial integrity and administrative freedom in the transition from traditional society to a modern industrial country. He attached importance to China’s strategic position, and believed the myth of the Chinese market. He opposed America’s economic cooperation with Japan, the United States has neither the experience nor the privileges in China, the immature cooperation will only make Japan benefit, leaving the United States and China damaged, so he opposed such cooperation. He insisted on putting open door policy to China implemented. Open door policy as a statement is not to make it work, it requires painstaking implementation and ongoing support. Only when the long-term, pervasive and specific actions were took, the United States can protect its rights and to maintain its share in China as an important market. He believed that the United States’ enterprises must play an important role to carry out the open door policy. He actively expanded the United States economic interests in China during the six years. There are many American loans to China by his handling and organization, such as HuaiHe River conservancy project loans, Fujian Sanduao navy loans, Standard Oil company’s oil loans, the Siems Carey Co.’s railway loans. He won a series of valuable privileges of petroleum, railways and loans, and proposed optimization solution in order to maximize the United States overseas economic expansion efficiency. He advocated the establishment of the United States independent brokerage firm and transoceanic transport company in China, and did not recognize Japan’s special interests in China. He advocated competition between the United States and Japan in order to eliminate exclusive of Japan in China.He seek cooperation with the European countries. After the failure of the U.S. alone investing activities, he seek cooperation with European powers, even plan to make China as a condominium in finances and economy.He put the American businessman, President Wilson, Guangdong officials in Beijing government and Britain as his dollar diplomacy supporters, but all of these people let his hopes. He put the blame on the corrupt officials in the Beijing government, militant warlords, the weak American businessmen, especially Japan’s conspiracy.He believed that Japan is the biggest threat for American interests in China, and launched a competition with Japan again and again in the petroleum, railway and loans during the six years in China. A series of lending activity he led or participated were an important part of bilateral economic relation in the early20th century. Reinsch used his political influence and social impact to promote U.S. lending activities in China so as to become a powerful tool to the United States of America’s China policy. By analyzing the reasons for the failure of these lending activities, we can reveal the defects of U.S. policy toward China. U.S. loans as a means of policy toward China not only affect the domestic political situation in China, but also changed the international relations in the Far East at the beginning of the twentieth century.

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